Browsing Theses by Issue Date
Now showing 1 - 20 of 8950
Results Per Page
- ItemICT and digital preservation of historical Data: A Study of the Africa and Culture section Department of general Art Studies, Knust(,August,2010) Amankwa, John Opuni
- ItemEstimating the transaction cost indices of public private partnership infrastructure in Ghana (Case study of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly)Donkor, Eric JimifosterPublic Private Partnership infrastructure projects have existed in the field of procurement for some time now however, it implementation in Ghana is at its early stages implying that transaction cost estimation of PPP projects are yet to be explored. The study focused on estimating Transaction Cost Indices for PPP projects undertaken in the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly which happens to be the first of its kind in the Ashanti Region. Two supporting objectives were set to address the aim of the study, they are: firstly, identify areas that substantially contribute to transaction cost of PPP projects and secondly, estimation of transaction cost indices of PPP infrastructure projects. The study relied on data from the works department of the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly on PPP projects concurrently on-going in four of their Sub Metropolitan Assemblies namely Subin, Tafo, Bantama and Kwadaso. They are five (5) projects in all, with most of them being shopping facilities and complexity of the projects varies. Feasibility studies cost tend to be the cost area that substantially contribute higher quota to the Transaction cost of PPP projects in the KMA. Furthermore, the study was able to come out with cost index for all the five (5) projects studied, therefore future projects can rely on the cost index as a guide on transaction cost expenses. Finally, transaction cost threshold was estimated in order to provide a ceiling of estimating the transaction cost index for projects. Therefore, it is recommended that, though private investors pay for the actual cost of the projects MMDAs can also reduce the transaction costs which are incurred during the initial stages of the project. It is recommended that further studies will consider all the Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assembly separately to come out with a transaction cost indices for the respective types of Assemblies.
- ItemHazard Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Tema Municipal Water SupplyNakotey, EbenezerThe study was undertaken to assess the quality status of drinking water in Tema municipal area. The concentrations of some selected toxic heavy metals (copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead, iron, and manganese) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Among the nine selected heavy metals nickel and lead show higher concentration than the WHO recommended limits. This is an indication of pollution however their hazard quotients (HQ) of 0.04875 and 0.034938 is far less than 1. Besides, hazard index and incremental lifetime risk were calculated to be 0.0866 and 4.499 x 109 respectively. Since hazard quotient is far less than 1, and the risk value of 4.499 x 10-9 is also far less than 1 x 10-6 it implies no health risk is associated with the water and therefore their presence had no significant health effect on human life.
- ItemByzantine architecture: an expression of byzantine culture(1964) Bart-Plange, E. V. E.
- ItemThe development of Greek temple architecture(1964-09-14) Addy, S. T."Throughout the history of the human race, architecture, the mother of all arts, has supplied shrines for religion, homes for the living, and monuments for the dead." (1) As far as history can record it has been in the nature of man to assign all natural occurrences beyond his reasonable understanding to the power of a god living in a plane higher than human beings. It has been primarily for the worship of such gods that man built temples. The building of temples, therefore, is the direct outcome of religion. During the early civilization of ancient Egypt, from about 5,000 B.C., temples were built mainly for traditional and mysterious rites performed by kings and priests, The Greek temple, on the other hand, was in the main a structure for housing a god whose image was placed in the 'naos', which forms the nucleus of the temple plan. The sacred architecture of the Greeks explores and praises the character of a god or group of gods by the development of the building as a sculptural embodiment of their presence. The meaning of the temple thus expressed may be said to be dual: first as an expression of the deity as in nature and also of the god as imagined by men. The deity, Apollo, for instance, was regarded as the patron of medicine and music. He was a god of archery, and connected with flocks and herds. Greek authors and artists portray him as a definite and glorious figure, the ideal type of young manhood and of a higher moral development than all the others except Zeus. It is not surprising therefore that in the Temple of Apollo epicurius at Basease, for example all the orders: Doric, Corinthian, and Ionic have been used. In another temple at Miletus Ionic capitals ornamenting the naos wall are of varied design. The bases of the peristyle columns are also of varied design. The temple of Zeus, father of the gods and supreme ruler, god of the phenomena of the atmosphere, stands majestic at Olympia, with sturdy external columns equal to those of the Parthenon in height, but greater in diameter. The temple of Zeus Olympius at Agrigentum is the second biggest Creek sacred building. Athena was the goddess of wisdom, peace, power and prosperity. She was regarded in art as a stately virgin, beautiful but severe face and grey eyes and of powerful yet graceful figure. It is well, then, that the most perfect Greek temple, the Parthenon is built as a fitting shrine for peaceful Athena. It was on temples that the Greeks spent most of their energies to build and this was carried to its climax alongside developments in literature, art and political institutions. The architecture is systematic and "reflects each stage of Greek history with remarkable acuracy."(1) The elements are the same but basic proportions are varied and refined to produce pleasing visual effects. What they achieved has been a great influence in the lands around the Mediterranean, and to a great extent through Rome to all Europe. It is very important, therefore, that all students of the arts and architecture, indeed of civilization, carefully consider the developments in Ancient Greece, with particular reference to temples, being the most important buildings during this period* The above title is chosen in order to briefly investigate and appreciate the influences on and the development of temple architecture particularly during the Hellenic period (700 B.C. - 146 B.C.). More attention will be devoted to work done between 430 B.C. and 323 B.C. during which period Athenian prosperity reached its climax.
- ItemHousing in Obuasi(1965) Tamakloe, Patrick Newton KwesiThe purpose of this dissertation is to examine the growth of Obuasi with particular reference to housing, and to analyze bow much the company has contributed towards its growth. This dissertation is achieved as the result of field work in Obuasi, examination of maps and building plans, thorough study of relevant records and finally references from documentary sources, quoted in the text and listed in the reference. Obuasi is a unique and an interesting town to study. Unlike other mining towns, Prestea and. Obuasi were founded and built by the mining companies. It is quite evident that other companies also have contributed in building towns in which they have individually established. Nevertheless, their problems might not be measured with the companies which have actually started building towns from their infancies. Obuasi is 53 miles by road and 33 miles by rail from Kumasi. Greater part of the town lies in a broad gap in Dampia range with only the residential area of the Ashanti Gold fields Corporation Limited and the Senior Civil Servants being built on the slopes. To trace the development it is necessary to examine conditions prevailing before modern mining started. Before the A.G,C.ⁿ came to Obuasi the land was almost empty. It is unfortunate there is no survey sheet published by the Survey Department during those days. Obuasi was omitted because it was considered not existing despite its 12 huts. This applied to some other towns and villages as well. Ashanti Goldfields Corporation was formed in 1897. It took over from a email company — the cots d’or Company (Gold Coast Company) which had been formed two years previously by a Merchant in London, Edwin Arther Cade. Cads approached the rival kings of Adansi and Bekwai, who disputed the ownership of Obuasi land and obtained a concession recognized by both of them. Soon afterwards, in 1897, the British Government after announcing its annexation with Ashanti, also recognized the concession. In the same year the new Ashanti Goldfields Corporation was formed and took over the entire concession from Cote d’or Company. From the preceding development it was evident that the A.G.C. became the rightful owner of the land which was built up by them of about 12 huts, the occupants of which were hunters. Today Obuasi has a population of 23,239 a growth which could no doubt, be attributed mainly to the establishment of the mines. The first permanent structure built by the Europeans who came to (Obuasi was a fort on a hill behind the present mine’s main office. This building was until very recently the General Manager’s residence. It was referred to as a fort because it was there that the Europeans took refuge behind a stockade during Ashanti War in 1900-1901. Hitherto, there were some difficulties which hindered the progress of the mining industry; difficulties like poor transport and recruitment of labour. However, the company managed to surmount some of these difficulties. A railway line was extended from Tarkwa to Obuasi in 1902. The extension eased the transportation of machinery. The introduction of machinery had increased the scope of the industry and as a result, there was an increase in labour force and thus swelling the population of the town; and thereby demanding the building of more houses. Growth in Population as against number of Houses built Obuasi 1901 1911 1921 1931 1948 1960 ºPopulation 400 5626 6626 7598 15724 22818 ¹Houses - 1100 1155 2654 7094 8126 The figures quoted for houses do not appear correct. These figures might probably appear convincing if they represent number of rooms which were perhaps compiled to assess rate-payers.
- ItemThe evolution of the structure of Gothic Cathedrals(1965-09-14) Megwalu, Justin
- ItemShopping centre, Labadi – Accra: report on 6th year design(1967) Asante, E. N.
- ItemRepair of a portion of Pakuso-Kumasi Road(1967-09-14) Owusu, Enoch JamesThe basic aim of physical planning is to improve the physical environment of communities and thus raise the stan¬dard of living and increase the welfare of the people. Much has been achieved in this field with regard to the urban areas where communal projects are implemented by the government dep¬artments. But in the rural areas, there is a serious lack of implementing Plans. Many villages, especially in Ashanti, have had layouts for a number of years without the implementation of a single communal project. There are various reasons for this neglect. In some villages the people lack initiative and see no reason why they should undertake some projects through communal labour, after paying taxes to the Local Council which is supposed to provide all communal amenities and services. Some of the Local Councils too are very irresponsible because of maladministration and misuse of money. In some of the villages, the people have the ini¬tiative, they understand why they should implement some projects themselves, but they lack the necessary technical know-how, proper organization, programming, and leadership. Therefore a project may best started and abandoned when it is half-way through or nearing completion. All these people need help and encouragement. The Department of Social Welfare and Community Development is giving all the help it can in this direction, but much more is needed. The development of the country depends mostly on the rural areas whore raw materials for industries and food to feed the workers are produced, and where most of the people live. Also, the recent awareness of most of these communities to improve their lot through communal labour and voluntary contributions, calls for urgent technical advice and help. Proper guidance and the needed technical aid will inspire them to undertake more projects. This may arouse the unconcerned villages to join in this important crusade of national development.
- ItemBesease Local Authority Middle School laterine project(1967-09-14) Buor-Sefah, EmmanuelINTRODUCTION In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of. Diploma to Physical Planning, every Final Tear Student was asked to choose a studio problem and carry it through survey and analysis, design and implemention. The main objective was to consolidate everything what the student has learnt in previous courses and at the same time to make a modest but reel contribution to the development of the country. The project selected was to be undertaken by the villagers themselves through. Self-help The villages surveyed before the final project wee chosen at Besease were, Aburaso, Konomoase, Daku, Bebu and Yabi. Problems of some of the villages were street drainage, poor construction of latrines and lack of classrooms for school children. The problems demanding immediate attention of the people of Besease were the lack of school latrine and the need for a well on the southeast of the village. At the request of the Chief mid the Development Committee, Miss Addaquay embarked on the development of the well leaving the school latrine for the writer. Besease village comes within the Guinea Savanna Woodland vegetation. The land is good for cocoa planta¬tion but the major crops grown by the people of Besease include maize. Plantain, cocoyam and cassava. In other words, the people are subsistence farmers. The existing facilities of Besease include a market and shops, and a post office. The position of the well on the northern part of the village is a problem as the people have to cross the Kumasi-Accra road to get to it. Other problems are lack of public health facilities and again the delaying of work on the new school building under construction. the Village Development Committee is responsible for the construction of the school latrine. The principal object in providing a sanitary latrine is to protect the health of the people. There are two major types of la trines, Family Privies and Public or Communal Privies. In both the Family and Public Latrines ere found the waterborne privies. Aqua Privies and Pit Latrines. Sketches are drawn to illustrate these clearly in the report. In constructing any of these privies there are some general standards that must be adhered to. The criteria for selecting a type of sanitary installation includes cultural, religious, climatic and geological conditions. Ehlers and Steel's requirements given in Chapter 111 my safeguard the health of a family or a community when a latrine is sited to fulfill the seven requirements. The nature of water is exposed to pollution either on the surface of the earth or underground. It is important that latrines are well located so that they cannot pollute sources of water supply. Another agent of disease carrier is the fly, when it flies indiscriminately from feaces to food. In meet of the Ashanti villages importance of latrines is not realized. Improvements have been made on the local construction of latrines In the rural areas, but the villagers do not make it possible for the experts to advise them. The Besease school latrine was constructed by the villagers themselves with technical advice and some material help from experts and voluntary organizations. The soil dug from the pit was used for preparing blocks for the walls of the latrine. Some materials used for the old latrine were also used for the const ruction of the new one. The remaining materials were purchased with the money raised from a harvest and some of the money which the villagers had paid as special rate towards the development of the village.
- ItemPedestrains in Kumasi City Center(1967-09-15) Effah, E."In the past human settlements were inhabited only by man and thus they were built only on human scale. New human settlements have also to accommodate the cars, the trains and all types of machines which are serving ant will serve man. Without letting the machines become masters of settlements, the latter should accommodate them as factors which are indispensable for human life."2 Men have since time immemorial grouped themselves together for safety, economic, political purposes and for social intercourse. To promote these activities, the town offered protection within its walls ant its centre was the focal point for these inter-related activities. While the town remained small, its internal movement to any function was limited ant was conveniently done on feet. In contrast to the internal movement, the external journeys for the purpose of selecting foot and other necessities in life was dangerous and difficult. To eliminate these problems man discovered various forms of transportation from the sleage to the horse drawn carriages. But because their speed was governed by the speed of the horse, the age-old human scale was hardly affected until the advent of the motor car which brought drastic changes. To begin with it occupied the same routes used by man and his horse, ant without adequate provision to segregate these modes of transport, the problem of conflict areas, resulting in accidents. Centrally to man's expectations, the motor car which was to serve him began to claim his life.3 However, with the advent of the motor car, his 1. Human scale, as described by Dr. Dexiadis, implies that the settlements were built on human dimensions, namely, such that every function was within 20 to 25 minutes walking distance and had an average population of between 10,000 and 20,000(see the Acient Greek and the City of the Present. Ekistics Vol. 18, No. 108, Nov. 1964 p. 349) 2. Ekistics Vol. 16 No. 92 p. 61 3. It claims 100 lives per day in the United States and since 1945, it has cost more British lives than did the World war II. A.M. Armstrong Synepsis of Notes from Professor Pedoski’s lecture on City Planning, p.12
- ItemCompletion of a classroom in Kwamo(1967-10-20) Koffie, John VictorThe Ghana Government has, in recent years embarked upon the development of the country be preparing planning schemes of towns and villages but in most cases only few of these layouts are actually implemented. These are those in urban areas declared Statutory Areas. The reason for this unfortunate situation is two-fold: a. inability of the Central Government to pay for implementation; b. inadequacy of planning staff But in order that villages may keep abreast with developments taking place in the urban areas, the government encourages them by providing technical aid so that they can improve their living conditions through self-help. Self-help is a technique of community development by which the efforts of the people are joined with those of the government in order to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities into the life of the national progress. The enthusiasm of the people is secured from the start but where this is not forthcoming it is stimulated through lectures, photographs, cinemas and concerts organized by the Social Welfare and Community Development Department. To this end the Social Welfare and Community Development gives aid to villages in the form of technical know-how to direct the people in carrying out small scale project as construction of schools, roads, and health centres, aid is in the form of materials and sometimes cash. Foreign agencies such as the United States agency for International Development and the Ford Foundation have, in recent years, been providing aid through the Social welfare and Community Development. While undertaking various self-help projects in the villages it is necessary to have trained personnel to guide the villagers. This project report exercise is therefore designed to introduce the Physical Planner to get some insight into his future work. As part of the final examination, each student was given the option to choose a village, select a project from it and carry it through survey, analysis design (where necessary) and implementation through local self-help. This project report has five chapters, each chapter covering a specific topic. Chapter I deals with the preliminary work; selection of villages out of which final project was to be chosen; final selection of village and project. Initially three villages, namely, Ayeduase, Kotei and Kwamo were selected. The main factor taken into consideration in selecting these villages was their proximity to the University since this would permit frequent and regular visits to the site. These villages having been selected, problems facing each village were discussed with the respective chiefs, elders and members of the Village Development Committee and their felt-needs listed in order of priority. Kwamo was finally selected because the villagers seemed extremely enthusiastic on self-help. Felt-needs of the village were listed as follows: a. completion of a Middle School classroom; b. completion of public pit latrines; c. construction of a Primary School. In selecting the final project from these three, preference was given to the one which satisfied most of the following criteria: a. the project should be capable of completion by 1 May 1967; b. it should meet the immediate felt-needs of the people and not the needs as conceived by an outside expert; c. it should represent a physical improvement of immediate use of the local people; d. money to be spent on the project should not exceed N¢167.00 (one hundred and sixty-seven new cedis) if possible; e. the project should allow for maximum use of local labour, materials and technical know-how with emphasis on self-help and community development techniques. With these criteria as a guide, the completion of the Middle School classroom was selected by the villagers as their immediate felt-need. Chapter II deals with the location, physical features, population trend, land tenure, political, economic and social aspects of the village. Kwamo is about nine miles east of Kumasi along the Kumasi-Accra trunk road. It lies on a ridge and is bordered by Fomisua on the west, Jachie on the north, Ejisu on the east and Krapa on the south. It has a population of 1,131. The village has moved once and is now resettled three quarters of a mile from its former site. The main occupation of the people is cocoa farming but a few of them trade in palm-wine, basket making and petty trading. There is a Community Centre, one Catholic Church, two Primary Schools, a Middle School and a Field.
- ItemChiefs palaces of Kotoku(1967-10-20) Engmann, C.E.Akim Kotoku was one of the three military organizations – Akim Abuakwa, Akim kotoku and Akim Bosome, each known as ‘oman’ or native state, which were formed in order to counteract the raids of the Ashantis. Each of them was ruled by Omanhene. An ‘oman’ is a confederation or groups of people attached to stools – Thus Oda is a member of ‘oman’, Akim Kotoku. The organisation of the akim kotoku oman was as follows – Every town or stool joining an oman was allotted a position in or other of the five groups of battle formation (i) Nifahene – commander of the right wing of the army and political head of those towns whose warriors fought in that wing. (ii) Benkumhene – commander of the left wing and political head of the towns fighting in that wing. (iii) Adontehene – commander of the central body of the army and political head of the towns in that section. Also head of the civil affairs of Oda town as district from oman affairs of which omanhene is head. (iv) Gyasehene – commander of that section of the army which includes the omanhene and his stool. Political head of the towns fighting in that section. The Gyase had three sections; the Gyase proper, Ankobea or out-post guards and Kyidom on rear-guard. The above ‘Ahenfo’ are of equal rank. Twafohene – commander of the Twafo, an advance guard of scouts forming a sub division of the Adonten; Political head of those towns fighting in the Twafo. Those towns approach the Adontenhene through the Twafohene. Political head of those towns fighting in the Ankobea. Those towns approach the Gyasehene through Ankobeahene. Kyidomhene – commander of Kyidom, one of the three sub-divisions of Gyase section. Those towns approach the Gyasehene only through Kyidomhene. Dabehene – Lord of the Omanhene’s sleeping room and leader of sub-division of the fighting force. Political head of some of the towns serving in the Ankobea sub-division of the Gyase section. These approach the Gyasehene through the Dabehene.
- ItemCommunity factories in the Kpandu District(1967-10-20) Gomes, Justina RubyThe objective of the study is to examine and assess the adequacy of selected community facilities in the Kpandu district and to investigate how far the enjoyment of these facilities is restricted by location, accessibility, income level and tradition of the community for which the facility id being provided. Further to suggest a more effective way of distributing these facilities to be of optimum service. The health service is chosen for particular study for a number of reasons. Firstly it is the critical facility that every community of whatever size or status demands; secondly it offers a hierarchy of establishments from the Regional Hospital to the Dressing station, similar to the hierarchy of communities in the region; thirdly, distribution, although fairly widespread, is uneven compared, for example, with the distribution of schools where every settlement or small group of settlements has a primary school; and fourthly, it appeared to offer the most consistent records for research. Education and open space are also felt to be important in fostering both the mental and physical health of the community and in this context these facilities have been additionally considered in this study. These community facilities have to be distributed for the optimum service of the communities for which they are provided and in order to do this an index is required as a guide to distribution. This is the function of planning standards. They provide the guide lines for the provision of facilities such as markets, shops, workshops, places worship public buildings, schools and local recreational open spaces. These standards are intended to ensure disciplined programming, planning and designing of the community facilities. The Town and Country Planning division, now the Physical Planning Department of the ministry of Economic Affairs has outlined standards to be used for the purposes of providing community facilities inn its traditional memoranda No. 5 These are stated to be “based on figures primarily intended for Accra and are, therefore subject to variation for schemes on very hilly sites where open space standards must necessarily be higher for geographical reasons. Under these circumstances, residential densities may be proportionally higher though no increase in gross density should be allowed. The Planner however, in using standards such as these has to apply them flexibly in order to achieve the aims and objectives of the plan.
- ItemTraditional Nigerian Costumes(1967-10-20) Nwankwo, D.N.D.The exact date when man began to clothe himself is not certain. It is most probable, however, that since the primary function of clothes is to provide protection against the inclement weather conditions, clothing must have had and early and “humble” beginning. Its earliest forms consisted of broad leaves, twigs and branches at a time man was essentially a savage. The resort to the use of skins or combinations of leaves was the outcome of the development of the most rudimentary tilling of the soil and taming of beasts for domestic use – a development which is still seen in historic perspectives as representing a remarkable advancement in the onward march to civilized living. Our modern concept of costumes is traceable to the early civilization of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Crete and Greece, some 5000 years B>C. – when spinning and weaving were innovated. In these civilizations costumes gradually transcended the mere necessity of providing protection against the elements and became ornamental, or a means of ornament, and of distinction in class societies. Gradually values and standards were established and in these subsequent civilizations, it became a mark decency to be well clad although what is decent – as this study makes even more evident is – varied and still varies from one society to another. The primary aim of this study is to describe the features of the major traditional costumes of the people of Nigeria and to ascertain and draw conclusions on what factors have helped to mould and shape them. Every people with a past keep some record no matter how rudimentary and, in no other sphere, is the culture of a people more impressed than in her Arts, Architecture and Costumes. Costumes mirror the structure of the society in which they are worn and are therefore very much part of its history. That no branch of the Nigerian National Museum has a record in any form of Nigerian people’s costumes in a fastly Westernizing society makes expedient studies such as this, essentially an academic exercise though they may be. Nigeria is a country of great diversity. In no other facet is this diversity reflected more than in the variety and extremes of costumes found within her borders and amongst her people. These costumes obviously reflect the differing stages of social and cultural development of the different people within Nigeria. It is relevant to record that during the time of this study, Nigeria was experiencing the gravest political crisis inn her history – culminating as it where, in a bloody civil war. This placed a lot of practical difficulties in the way of this enquiry: only limited areas of Nigeria could be visited and people showed little interest in an enquiry which was not aimed at solving a crisis that was threatening their very existence. In consequence, I have – with respect to the traditional costumes of the pagan peoples of Northern Nigeria – drawn extensively from the Ethnographic Surveys of Africa conducted by the international African Institute, London. I thank the Institute for the use made of the surveys.
- ItemConstruction of a Pit Laterine and playing field in Okyerekrom(1967-10-20) Awuletey, Isaac Sai