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- ItemA 40–100 MHz phase-locked loop frequency synthesizer with built-in self-test(2012-12-09) Yankey, JephthahThe Phase locked loop (PLL) is one of the most important devices in modern electronic systems. PLLs are widely used for clock generation or frequency synthesis in communication systems, computers, radio and other electronic applications. However, due to the use of expensive external equipment and amount of time involved, traditional VLSI testing methods are inefficient for testing of PLLs. In this thesis, a fully functional PLL frequency synthesizer which operates from 40MHz to 100MHz is designed. The designed PLL exhibits phase noise of -71dBc/Hz at 1kHz, which is low enough for a wide array of applications. To solve the testing problem, Built-In Self-Test (BIST) is employed. A BIST scheme based on a defect-oriented method of testing is proposed. A prototype adds BIST circuitry, a good part of which is derived from existing components of the original design. The PLL BIST scheme is generic and hence portable to similar PLL designs. One significant addition unit is a simple response collector that combines shifting and counting functionalities. The entire system is designed in a typical CMOS process using a 3V power supply which is commonly found in today’s portable products. Spectre® simulations of the PLL show that it is capable of synthesizing any frequency between 40 and 100MHz within a reasonably short acquisition time. The output waveform of the generated signal is clean and shows no spikes whatsoever. Experimental simulations also reveal that the BIST circuitry is capable of generating the exact test pattern needed. It also performs efficiently all the unique checks which make up the PLL BIST. The final test output is very consistent and produces the same results for a number of different runs of the simulation.
- ItemA. A. Anti’s ‘obeede: an english translation(2002-12-11) Obeng, JosephThis Project Work is a translation of a text from Akan into the English Language. It includes research into the etymology of some names and expressions in the text and their significance in this literary work. Knowledgeable artists have written a lot of books in English. These books cover many disciplines such as History, Government, Economics, stories in the form of drama, novel and poetry and the like. Many of these texts have been translated into various languages including Akan. There are similar knowledgeable artists who have written books in Akan. They write with the socio-cultural, political and religious knowledge of Ghanaian life in general and that of the Akan in particular. These books should be studied by Ghanaians for their social and cultural significance: but they are usually restricted to a small group of people who can read and understand the Akan language. This unfortunate situation has come about as a result of the general lack of interest in learning to read and write Ghanaian vernacular languages. The use of English Language as the official language can be of immense help for the dissemination of vital information ‘hidden’ in the Akan text to more people in the Ghanaian society, since Akan is the widest spoken language in Ghana. It is against this background that the researcher has embarked on this project to translate an Akan nouvelle, “Obeede”, into the English Language. Speakers or learners of a particular language are always anxious to discover the etymology or the original meaning of some words and expressions to facilitate their study of that language. Speakers or students who seek such competence benefit immensely from such knowledge. In view of this, the dissertation discusses the etymology of some names and expressions in this Akan text. The sources of information on the etymological study have been selected resource persons and the selected Akan literary text, “Obeede” This translation is a Comparison of two languages and it is therefore thematically within the genres and forms acceptable for the categories of Comparative Literature. Beyond this, however, the project also makes accessible to a wider world of readers a little known but clearly major work of literature in Akan. Many artists have written useful books in both Akan and English, but unfortunately, they do not often translate their texts into any one of the two major languages mentioned above. Neither do they provide etymology or meaning of the names and expressions they use in their books. A few texts have glossaries, which explain the meaning of some words in their books but such words, and expressions mostly receive superficial treatment, thus glossing over their significance for the texts in which they are used. This modest research is an attempt to look at some of the problems that make for the inadequacy and undetailed nature of such translated materials. It contains some ideas that may be useful to students and users. The translated text, “Obeede” was written by A. A. Anti, and published in 1960 by the Bureau of Ghana Languages, Accra. Anti writes about the religious beliefs and the socio-cultural life of the Akans. He traces the Akan belief in the ancestral home ‘Asamando’ or ‘Amamprobi’ which is represented by one KYE. He goes on to portray the traditional professions of hunting and woodwork engaged in by Boakye and the slave trade of which Dkoampa is the victim. Any reader who engages this book will discover the immense knowledge that is hidden within its depths. THE AUTHOR The author of the novel “Qbeede” is a Guan. The novelist is called Mr. A. A. Anti. He was born in 1920 in his hometown, Anum near Boso in the Eastern Region. Mr. Anti had his elementary school education in Anum Presbyterian Primary and Middle Schools. He started his career as a professiona! teacher after he graduated from the Presbyterian Teacher Training College at Akropong-Akwapim in the Eastern Region in 1941. The novelist married Miss. Comfort Okraku also a Guan from Abiriw near AkropongAkwapim, in 1945. Mrs. Comfort Okraku Anti was also a professional teacher. They had six children of whom two were boys and the rest girls. The author became a language teacher in the Ghanata Secondary School at Dodowa in the Dangbe West District of the Greater Accra region, from 1959 to 1964. He taught the Akwapim Twi. Mr. A. A. Anti has contributed immensely to the development of Akan literature. His two books — “The Ancient Ashanti Kings” and ‘Obeede’, in English and Akwapim Twi respectively, have their theme on slavery. In his book, “The Ancient Ashanti Kings”, Mr. Anti states that clearly, the much- vaunted military might of Asante can be construed as an instrument of colonialist exploitation. Of principal interest to us here is that the King’s Court appropriated a kind of booty. A. A. Anti talks about the sources of kingly income. The Asante King, according to the author, was permitted by customary law to trade in slaves and natural products. He would sometimes promote deserving persons to positions of higher status, but only in return for the payment of a fee of 8 ounces of gold. He would advance some gold to a prospective office holder to trade with, and the person’s promotion would depend on how much return he was able to make on the capital advanced (Anti correctly labels this as usury). The King would make manifest his willingness to bend the course of justice in favour of any person who was prepared to “buy” (without insisting on taking away or indeed even seeing) any of the special sheep domesticated and kept in the royal pens for this purpose. Such sheep could of course be “sold” many times over. What a gentle from of bribery! The author’s focus on this disturbing aspect of our history is prevalent in his novel, “Obeede” and it gives way to an extravagant display of the creative imagination as t moves freely from history into myth through legend and back again to the ordinariness of daily routine in life.
- ItemAbsenteeism Among Rural Teachers: The Contribution of “Poor Remuneration”, “Qualification of Teachers” and “Furthering Studies on Distance Learning”(2013-07-09) Basiru, Nsoah KwesiAccording to Julius Nyerere― Education will not give one the chance to escape poverty but it will fight poverty from ones community. Education is therefore an earn in itself as well as means to other earns. However, people in the Pru district are gradually losing these enormous benefits of education,this largely is due to absenteeism of teachers from class. The negative effect absenteeism poses to education calls for a study into it. Constas and Vichas (1980) however determined some common variables such as poor remuneration, teachers furthering education and Qualification of teachers as the main contributors of absenteeism.This research is to further check the contribution of these variables, formulate a model for absenteeism and use it to model and predict absenteeism.Poor remuneration is the number contribution to absenteeism and it will be very appropriate to redirect a larger chunk of budget on remuneration of teacher instead of recruiting substitute teachers among others. There is a 99.9% chance that a teacher whose remuneration is good will always be in school irrespective of their Qualification or them furthering education.A database should also be set on attendance of teachers then monitoring and evaluation should be enforced.
- ItemAburi Gardens Redevelopment(1992-09-28) Addo, Ferdinand ObuobisaModern urban life weighs heavily on the nerve end health of mankind and ate the causes of the impoverishment of men’s inner life if he is unable to find opportunities for a change and for renewing his strength. Recent trends In urban development has resulted in congestion in cities worldwide - the uncontrolled sprawl of the urban areas end the increasing number of urban residents has resulted in the loss of outdoor recreational opportunities amid natural surrounding which provides serene and green areas to which the highly stressed urban man can retreat and refresh himself. As a result of technological advancement manifested In the rationalization of work and information end the advent of more efficient means of transportation, man has had an increasing amount of leisure time at his disposal which has been devoted popularly to travel, tours end outdoor recreation.
- ItemAbuse of psychotropic substances -a survey of some first and second cycle institutions in the Bosomtwi and Atwima-Kwanwoma Districts in Ashanti Region of Ghana(2010-06-02) Assabil, James KwesiA random survey using semi-structured questionnaires was conducted in 13 selected first and second cycle schools in the Bosomtwi and Atwima Kwanwoma Districts of Ashanti Region to ascertain the effects of increased abuse of psychotropic substances on the academic performances of 600 students interviewed at random. The psychotropic drugs identified to be abused by the students include: amphetamines; coffee; cigarette; cocaine; marijuana; alcohol and heroine. Majority (94%) of pupils abuse both coffee and alcohol and 31% of pupils abuse marijuana, amphetamine, cocaine and heroine. Although majority (about 56%) of them claim the use of these drugs had improved their academic performances, about 11% of them rather developed truant behavioral problems with abysmal academic performances in the long run. The majority (about 61%) of them also got introduced to the drugs by their families and friends. Ninety six percent of the pupils were exposed to the problem of psychotropic substances abuse at an average age of about 11.5 years. This problem is worst in pupils with single parents or divorcees and also when adolescents are in serious financial problems. Parent remittances were the main source of money for the purchase of drugs. Majority (51%) of the student drug abusers were males although females constitute 45% of the population in these schools. However, the likelihood ratio of abuse amongst male and female students were either asymptotically insignificant (P<0.07) or linearly insignificant (P<0.4). The study generally revealed little improvement in academic performances in schools with increased drug use and the District Education Oversight Committees (DEOCs) as well as Parent Teacher Associations in the two Districts need to seriously get involved in school management programs to assist the implementation of child care monitoring programmes at home and schools in order to find a lasting solution to the rampant drug abuse problem.
- ItemAcceptance and use of insecticide treated net (ITN) by mothers for malaria control in children under five years in the Sunyani Municipality(2005-11-09) Agyei, Samuel KofiMalaria continues to remain a major burden of morbidity and mortality in most parts of developing world, more so in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 90% of the deaths associated with Malaria occurred in Africa, South of the Sahara (WHO 2003). But, what is more distressing is that children under-five years are disproportionately affected by the incidence of Malaria, especially in Ghana (GHS, 2001). The study sought to assess the context of acceptability and utilization of Insecticide Treated bed nets (ITNs) among children under five years in the Sunyani Municipality aimed at contributing towards the improvement of reducing malaria incidence. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was adopted, using multistage random sampling method to select study participants. The study was limited to mothers of children under five years. Three hundred (300) mothers with children under five were interviewed using structured survey questionnaire. The main findings, indicated that most (89.3%) of mothers interviewed had adequate knowledge about the causes and prevention of malaria. The respondents knew that the use of JTNs was the best method of malaria prevention. Few mothers however mentioned eating balanced diet (7.7%) and consulting herbalists (0.6%) as the best way to prevent malaria. Respondents’ knowledge about sources of information on ITNs was generally high with hospitals (75.3%) and television (60.7%) as the main sources of information about the net. • Despite their high knowledge about the ITNs, a little more than one-third (3 5%) own the nets. Majority (76.7%) of respondents who own the nets used them the night before the study. Those respondents, who did not have nets, expressed their willingness to buy them when they get money. Based on the key findings, it is recommended that: • Education on the use of ITNs should be intensified. • The Municipal Health Directorate should effectively collaborate with the Municipal Assembly and identifiable groups and organizations to educate the community on Malaria prevention methods through seminars. • The Municipal Assembly should embark on programmes on environmental cleanliness and good hygienic practices to eradicate mosquito breeding sites. • More ITNs to be produced and highly subsidized. • Public and Private Sector participation should be encouraged in the production and distribution of permanently treated ITNs.
- ItemThe acceptance of family planning in the Tamale Metropolis(2005-11-08) Salifu, AbukariEvery minute of every day at least one woman dies from complications of pregnancy and child birth, more than 585,000 deaths every year 99% of this is from the developing countries. Family planning can prevent at least 25% of all maternal deaths by allowing women to delay motherhood. Family planning can prevent improve the health and survival of adolescent girls by allowing them to postponed childbearing. Globally, three quarters of the World population do not plan their families A cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was used in Tamale Metropolis to investigate family planning acceptance among couples of reproductive age group. The study also sought to find out if there were any power relations in deciding family planning, fertility preference of the couples and their knowledge and opinion about the subject. Among the 100 people sampled 19% had never heard of family planning. Among those who had heard about family planning, 87% of both male and female knew at least one modern method of contraception but many did not approve of it. 61% reported not discussing family planning with their partners. 40% of the sampled population was using contraception at the time of the interview. Frequencies and percentages showed men disapproval of family planning. Over 58% of the population disapproved of the use of contraceptives, though they have the knowledge. Women realized that males have a dominant role in the family and makes decisions regarding most family matters including family planning. So they go behind their husbands for family planning services. Socio-economic and cultural factors affect contraceptive use. Of 100 sampled, 17% are not using contraceptives for religious reasons and 15% are not using because of socio-cultural reasons. However, some men and women showed interest for family planning for economic reasons. The family planning acceptor rate was 40% from this study indicating that there is improvement in the practice of family planning among respondents. In the nutshell family planning practice is very low among couples in Tamale. It is recommended here that community gate keepers should join hands with the government to ensure the practice of family planning. Also, MHMT should work with PPAG, population council and others to ensure family planning practice.
- ItemAcceptance of HIV Counselling and Testing Among Pregnant Women in the Kumasi Metropolis(2008-06-13) Kwofie, Gabriel Sakyi (Dr.)In Ghana, as in most parts of Africa, south of the Sahara, HIV/AIDS account for a lot of mortality and morbidity in children. Children born to infected mothers acquire infection and progress to clinical diseases. This mother-to-child-Transmission (MTCT), accounts for most of the cases in children less than 15 years. To help address this problem, the Ghana National Policy on HIV/AIDS and STIs has come out with strategies that include the use of routine Counseling and Testing (CT) as a tool for the prevention of MTCT (PMTCT). The main objective of this study was to determine the level of acceptance of this routine HIV CT, as well as factors associated with acceptance among pregnant women in Kumasi Metropolis. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional type, with structured questionnaire as the data collection tool served on 200 pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC) in the Kumasi Metropolis. The sampling frame was pregnant women attending ANC at the three hospitals in the metropolis. The 200 ANC attendants were selected by a systematic random sampling technique. Findings include a high level of acceptance, with 87.5% of respondents accepting to undergo HIV testing either before or after counseling. The effects of socio-demographic characteristics on acceptance of HIV CT were not statistically significant. The knowledge level of pregnant women on HIV/AIDS and Prevention of mother to Child transmission (PMTCT) significantly affected HIV CT acceptance (p = 0.000): Those with adequate knowledge levels were twenty four times more likely to accept HIV CT than those with inadequate knowledge levels. Seeking Spousal permission did not significantly affect acceptance (p= 0.86). However, spousal involvement significantly encouraged HIV CT (p = 0.04) Given the high, level of acceptance which is consistent with high acceptance levels in some African studies, the existing strategy of routine HIV CT, as a tool for PMTCT of HIV, should be sustained, and if possible improved upon.
- ItemAccess to credit for women entrepreneurs: a case study of women in micro and small scale business at Tanoso, Kumasi(2009-05-14) Koranteng-Dakwa, Winifred
- ItemAccess to finance by small and medium scale enterprises from savings and loans institutions in the Kumasi metropolis(2012-06-06) Aboagye, RobertIn today’s Global Economy, SMEs are the engine of growth and for that matter they must be funded and thereby the state or the government must put policies that will assist their growth by accessing funds from financial institutions or the banks with lower interest rate. The study aimed at finding out the type of credit used by SMEs from Savings and Loans Companies, other sources of credit accessed by SMEs in Kumasi, the major constraints faced by SMEs in accessing credit from savings and loans companies and to investigate to investigate the assessment criteria used by savings and loans companies in SME loan appraisal. There is evidence that savings and loans companies are making credit available to the entrepreneurs of small and medium scale enterprises. Prior to that inadequate credit was a major problem facing the Sector. There is the need in Ghana for our Universities in collaboration with the banks or financial institutions to educate the public about the importance of savings.
- ItemAccess to finance by small and medium scale enterprises from Savings and Loans Institutions in the Kumasi Metropolis(2008-08-10) Aboagye, RobertIn today's Global Economy, SMEs are the engine of growth and for that matter they must be funded and thereby the state or the government must put policies that will assist their growth by accessing funds from financial institutions or the banks with lower interest rate. The study aimed at finding out the type of credit used by SMEs from Savings and Loans Companies, other sources of credit accessed by SMEs in Kumasi, the major constraints faced by SMEs in accessing credit from savings and loans companies and to investigate to investigate the assessment criteria used by savings and loans companies in SME loan appraisal. There is evidence that savings and loans companies are making credit available to the entrepreneurs of small and medium scale enterprises. « Prior to that inadequate credit was a major problem facing the Sector. There is the need in Ghana for our Universities in collaboration with the banks or financial institutions to educate the public about the importance of savings.
- ItemAccess to health care services in Ghana sports: a case study of the Kintampo District(2004-11-24) Boateng, Foster AntwiThis study was undertaken to assess the state of and access to health care services in Ghana sports with particular reference o the Kintampo District professional sports in recent times is characterized by extreme physical and mental exertions where things are stretched beyond the Limits of the ordinary. Against this background, it is one of the most fundamental duties of every sports administrator to ensure good health care of his sportsmen and women. Good health care of the sportsman and woman can take the form of a. periodic medical examination, regular health monitoring measures, provision of quality and quantity diet, provision of medical care services and also opportunity to have access to information and education on personal health issues. Issues relating to the health of sports performers are most often relegated to the back ground at the expense of other issues This phenomenon has caused man sports talents fail to realize their full potentials through incapacitation and sometimes death. The study method includes interviews of retired sportsmen and women who had been victims of sports injuries. Sports administrators were interviewed. The sample size was ninety (90), made up of fifty (50) sportsmen, victims of sports injuries and other health related problems, and forty (40) sports administrators. Closed and open — ended questionnaire were used after pre-testing them. The respondents were conveniently and purposively sampled. Results and findings indicate that there is a 1 00% awareness response from respondents on the risks associated with sports However, sports administrators are not doing much to cater for the health needs of their sportsmen and women. Further findings indicate that no sports administrator for instance has ever taken his Sportsmen and women through any form of medical examination since 1st January, 2002. The findings on health personnel situation in the Teams indicate that no Team administrator enjoys the services of Team Physicians, Team Psychologist, Team Nutritionist, Team Physiotherapist. among others, as each position recorded 100% non availability. Results of the study concluded that access to health care services in Ghana sports is poor. It was therefore recommended that all stakeholders in sports development in the District should come out with policies that would make health care service affordable and accessible to sportsmen and women in the District and the Country at large.
- ItemAccess to land for sustainable agricultural development - case study of the Krachi district of Ghana(1995-04-19) Sarkodie, Yaw AsanteThis study focuses on access to land for sustainable agricultural development in the Krachi District of Ghana. It looked at the tenurial arrangements; traditional customary landholding and public tenurial systems and their relationships with improvement in agriculture and the living conditions of the people. The various bottlenecks hindering the achievement of sustainable agricultural development were examined. By way of methodology, the study was based on desk work, interviews through questionnaire to various categories of respondents including farmers, (male, female, indigenes and migrants, subsistence and commercial), opinion leaders, chiefs and landowners and agricultural Extension Front Line staff. Observational method and Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques were also used to obtain supplementary data. The study established that sustainable agriculture is thwarted by economic, institutional and technological and environmental problems. It was also detected that access to land in the traditional set up were relatively favourable to prospective farmers. However, the procedural arrangement could be onerous and time involving. On the other hand, government acquired agricultural lands for resettlement were beset with inequities resulting in landlessness of some indigenes (Asukawkaw, Banda, Grubi area) contrary to generally held views that land was always available to natives for cultivation. This state of affairs has created social upheavals in the form of land disputes (Apesukobi vrs Asukawkaw) and detachment from traditional homes through mass emigration to neighbouring districts. All these had culminated in low incomes, low endogenous development manifested in the near neglect of culture of maintenance” of some of the few communal facilities such as schools, toilets among others that were provided under the resettlement scheme. Policy implication that could be derived include a. access to land alone does not necessarily lead to sustainable rural development or sustainable agriculture; and b. resettlement schemes do not always lead to sustainable rural development. Therefore for sustainable agricultural development, as a strategy of Krachi District development to be achievable, there is the need to revitalise agriculture by a maze of packages including infrastructural provision, inputs supply, marketing, credit and extension service. On the other hand, the district need to redefine and redirect her development aspirations through poverty alleviation programmes, integrating communities and NGO’s in the development effort, adopting integrated development programmes creating congenial atmosphere for qualified public and civil servants to work as well as inculcating environmental consciousness and restoration awareness in the people.
- ItemAccess to loans at Ezi Savings and Loans Ghana Limited at Ashaiman Municipality of Ghana(2012-06-22) Yao, Kweku CosmosThis study seeks to examine how accessible are the loans given at Ezi savings and Loans Limited at the Ashaiman Branch in Tema Municipality. This was done by determining the types of loans accessible, analyzed the processes of accessing the loans, determine the customers perception on the accessibility of the loans and the trend in access of loans. The study employed the descriptive design approach using the survey method of data collection and analysis. Data was collected from 151 respondents using a questionnaire, simple random sampling method was used as a basis for selecting 151 respondents from the 435 customers for the study. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used for the study. Reports on access to loans over the past five years were used for the trend analysis. Major findings of the study are that microfinance and personal loans are main types of loans accessible with the least being constructional and agricultural loans. It was also found that most customers perceive loans to be accessible at Ezi Savings and Loans Limited. A major recommendation is that management should reveal its policy and guidelines on interest rate as well as on collateral for specific loans so as to increase access to loans.
- ItemAccess to quality health care among the poor in Asante Mampong, Ghana: a prospective view through the National Health Insurance Scheme(2005-11-09) Gyasi, Sampson KofiThe introduction of the “cash and Carry’ system in 1992 compounded the problem of financial access to quality health care created financial barrier to quality health care and thus led to lo utilization of health services especially, by the poor. This led to deteriorating health status. To reduce this problem of financial access to health, Ghana government is committed, and has introduced a convenient, affordable and sustainable health financing arrangement to protect the people, especially the poor, through the National Health insurance Scheme (NHIS). Though laudable, little is known about the efficacy of the health insurance in improving access to quality health in developing countries with Ghana not being an exception. A cross-sectional analytic study design aimed at investigating whether the NHIS is a feasible option for improving access to quality health care, and to identify strategies to improve access to quality health care in Asante Mampong was undertaken between the periods. May- August 2005. A sample of 240; consisting of 200 community members (individual respondents) aged 18 years and above and 40 key informants also in the same age group were selected for the study. Data collection tools were pre-tested at Agona, with similar characteristics as Mampong before data collection. Data was collected mainly through quantitative means with structured questionnaire and face-to-face interviews with respondents while secondary data from the Sekyere West District Health Administration, District Assembly, and the National Health Insurance district office at Mampong were also used. Data was analysed by computer using Special programme for Social Science (SPSS) and Epi Info sofiwares as well as manual. Key findings from the study indicated that the NI-ITS has the potential of increasing access to quality health care. This was confirmed by the key informants all of whom have access to quality health care because they belong to the civil servants health insurance scheme. On the contrary, because the individual respondents do not belong to any form of health insurance (HI), their access to quality health care is low (2 1.5%). Financial barrier was identified as the major cause of access to quality health care. Access to quality health care was dominated by more married couples (69.8%) and Christians (88.4%). The dominant health care financing mechanism in Asante Mampong is the ‘cash and carry’ system, though unpopular. Notably, awareness of the NH1S was identified as high in Asante Mampong as public education and advertisements have gone to the grassroots level. Acceptability of the scheme was also noticed as high 90% for both respondents. Coverage was however low but promising for community members Informal sector respondents (1R) (40.5% but high for the K1-forflial sector (920%). The following strategies are suggested to improve access to quality health care through an improved coverage provision of quality health care; intensive public education; expedite implementation process; convenient premium paying mechanism; door-to door registration; compulsory membership for all residents in Ghana and stop politicising the scheme. The role of HI in improving access to quality of health care cannot be overemphasized. The establishment of a district-wide health insurance schemes nationwide is a welcome idea. Since the scheme is new in the country, there are bound to be challenges such as pertain in Asante Mampong. There are however, opportunities such as high level of awareness and acceptability of the NHIS in Asante Mampong. These should therefore be tapped and through proper scheme management and government continuous commitments, the full benefits of the NHIS could be realised. From all indications, the NHIS is capable of improving access to quality health care, despite the teething problems. It is therefore recommended that further studies into its sustainability should be undertaken.
- ItemAccessibility and marketing of commodities for District development - a case study of Ahanta West District in Ghana(1993-09-12) Koroma, Alimamy PhilipLike in many other African countries agriculture is the dominant activity in Ghana, engaging more than half of the active labour force and contributing substantially to the national economy. In addition to agriculture, small scale industry and fishing are also significant. While the primary aim in these activities is production for subsistence, marketing of the surplus is another objective. Unfortunately however, producers face many problems in carrying out this second function. The major problem they face is inaccessibility to markets, which limits their full participation in the market and exchange system. Inaccessibility to markets is the result of many factors including poor road condition, limited transport supply and high transport charges. As a result, producers are forced to sell to middlemen or assemblers at low prices. The effect of accessibility on marketing is not well understood, especially at the district level. This study therefore investigates how accessibility influences marketing and evolves strategies to improve both. The study made use of extensive literature research, interviews, observations and discussions. Data obtained from these sources were analysed. The study’s major findings are summarised as follows; i) The district has a road density of 0.27km/km2 but generally, the roads are in poor condition. Only 19km of theentire feeder road network was in good condition, 6.7km in Lair condition and the rest (84.3km) was in poor condition. ii) Transport costs were high, averaging about l9l per ton km for maize in the accessible corridors and c238 per ton km in the inaccessible corridors. This variation in costs is due to the differences in road condition and the transport supply. In accessible corridors, distance accounted for about 67 percent of the variations in transport costs, while in inaccessible corridors, this was 42 percent. iii) Mini-buses and taxis are the main means of motorised transport used for the transportation of goods and passengers between the settlements and the Agona market as well as between the Agona market and Takoradi. However, transportation of produce from farm to village is entirely done by head porterage. iv) In the district, middlemen handle almost all types of produce including oil palm, coconut and cocoa. Only 22 percent of the producers are able to sell their produce directly to consumers in the market. v) The same quantity of produce shows price differences between •accessible and inaccessible corridors as well as between the farmgate and the market. Farm gate price in accessible corridors are higher than those in inaccessible corridors. For example, the farm gate price of a 91kg bag of cassava is 12.5 percent higher in accessible corridors than in inaccessible ones. Price differentials for a 68kg bag of gari, is 4.5 percent higher in the accessible corridor. Similarly, the market price of tomato is about 55 percent higher than its farmgate price in an inaccessible corridor. For gari it is about 13 percent higher. Again, the trend is that the difference between farmagate prices and market prices is higher for perishable produce like tomato or fish. At the same time, process products like gari which can store longer show a small price difference between accessible and inaccessible corridors and between farmgate and market prices. The study recommends that the roads linking Egyambra and Anyano, Princess Town and Abura, Cape Three Points Agona and Mpatano and Ewusiejo should be rehabilitated. In addition, community participation should be encouraged in road maintenance programmes. It is also recommended that the market infrastructure should be improved by building more permanent structures and providing water, storage and toilet facilities. A second periodic market for the district should be located in Apowa. The management of the transport and marketing systems would be improved through the formation of co-operatives, better remuneration and revenue collection strategies and promotion of private investments. It is anticipated that the adoption and implementation of these recommendations will go a long way to improving accessibility and marketing within the district.
- ItemAccessibility to finance for non traditional exports in Ghana(2012-07-29) Onny, Benjamin LloydAccess to finance has been identified as a dominant constraint facing Ghanaian exporters, especially in Non Traditional Exports (NTEs). Available evidence indicate that commercial banks in developing economies would rather invest their funds in less risky ventures than to place such funds in the development of the export sector (Asiedu-Appiah, E. 2005). This qualitative study seeks to find out the difficulties NTEs sector encounter in accessing export finance to support their businesses. The study is a non-experimental research using primary and secondary data. Using convenience sampling, 60 exporters were selected for the study. Their responses to questionnaire and interviews were compiled, analysed and evaluated using techniques such as tabulation and appropriate statistical graphs. Results from the study suggest that collateral, financial statement and cash flow are critical for financial institutions in extending credit to small non-traditional exporters. The study reveal high risk (real or perceived) associated with bank lending to NTEs likewise constrain access to finance. Banks lack the appropriate instruments for managing loans to NTEs. Most important, banks typically lack the know-how to reach the NTEs market segment. The study also examines the operating characteristics and key concerns of credit guarantee schemes. Credit guarantee schemes promote the flow of finance to NTEs by acknowledging their limited ability to provide acceptable collaterals, and by mitigating risks caused by the poor credit analysis and pricing skills of banks whose loans are to be guaranteed. Some thoughts on how to make Ghana's credit guarantee schemes sustainable are also provided.
- ItemAccessing the inventory management practices in a manufacturing company: ( a case study of Juaben Oil Mills Ltd)(2008-09-13) Siriboe, Nana Yaw SarpongEffective inventory control is a vital function to help ensure the success of manufacturing and distribution companies. This effectiveness of inventory control is directory measurable by how successful a company is in providing high levels of customer services, low inventory investment and low costs. Certainly, an area where management should apply a philosophy of aggressive improvment. (http://www.rmdonovan.com/inventory -contorl .htm) Although the amount and value of inventories carried by different types of firms varies widely, a typical firm probably has about 30 percent of its current assets and perhaps as much as 90 percent of its working capital invested in inventory (J. Stevenson, 1999). Open and closed ended questionnaire and interview were used to assess all the primary data while reports and records were used for the secondary data. Graph tool of Microsoft Excel software was used to analyze the data obtained.\ The study tried to identify the inventory management system adopted by JOML with its challenges and how these systems can further be improved. The study revealed the urgent need for a well documented procedure to be adopted by the company in managing inventories. The study further indentified a lot of problems chief amongst these were shortages, overstocking and delays in deliveries. This study also revealed that the stores personnel do not have any professional training on the effect and cost of bad inventory practices. The store’s manager, however, does not take part in decision making and this poses a threat to effective inventory management. It is therefore recommended that Management considers inventory management as part of corporate planning so as to save cost in managing inventories. Management is also advised to computerized stores activities which will help improve the smooth transfer of information within and outside the stores. This will also ensure proper documentation of items to facilitate the company adopting an inventory model in the future. Although this is a demanding task, the resulting benefits of proper management of stores activities proposed by the research make the task worthwhile. Further studies must be done to implement pragmatic inventory management models relating to JOML after recommendations have been fully implemented
- ItemAccommodation for Members of Parliament (Accra)(1998-02-19) Adjei, Justice OdoteiOut of the forty (40) or so years of independence, democratic rule has been put on ice for over three decades. Parliamentarians have never been provided a purpose built accommodation to serve as a duty post. The residential deficit of Ghana sums into several hundreds of thousands. This deficit has also affected members of the legislature whose constituencies are outside the capital. In government’s attempt to solve this problem, some MPs have showed bad faith as captured in a headline of the Daily Graphic in 1997. This read ‘89 MPs TO QUIT FLATS”. The report considers steps taken to forestall future occurrences of these problems and a design proposal for an accommodation facility to house MPs as a DUTY POST
- ItemAccountability in Religious Circles: Case Study of the Kumasi Central Mosque(2012-02-17) Seidu, AhmadMuslims both from northern Ghana and beyond its frontiers, mainly from Nigeria and other West African States converged in Kumasi to subsequently form the Muslim community. This community however was not only composed of migrants but also those who are indigenes of Kumasi to become the Asante Muslims and commonly referred to as the Asante Nkramo. This Muslim community built the Kumasi Central Mosque which is the focus of our study since its inception in the early 1950s. The Kumasi Central Mosque remains the symbol of unity and integration of the Muslim community. Yet despite the unity, it has undergone some disputes in terms of leadership as well as the control of the Mosque. Two personalities have dominated the politics of the Mosque for so long – Amadu Baba and Malam Mutawakilu who had both become the sakin zongo of Kumasi. Control over ownership of the Mosque had divided the front of the Muslim leadership in Kumasi that nearly marred the integration and unity of the community. Two blocs had fought over the leadership in terms of Imamship of the Mosque- the Muslim Mission and the Muslim Community- that led to court actions. This thesis argues on the responsibility and accountability of the financial aspects as well as the leadership of the Mosque. It also suggests the mutual agreement between the Muslim Mission and the Muslim Community. The two blocs agreed to come to terms in an arbitration headed by the Busia administration that led to the selection of an Imam from the Muslim Community and the deputy from the Muslim Mission. The concession led to a relative peace and harmony in the Muslim community. The Central Mosque remains, despite all these disputes, the focal point and symbol of unity and perhaps disunity among the Muslim community in Kumasi