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- ItemICT and digital preservation of historical Data: A Study of the Africa and Culture section Department of general Art Studies, Knust(,August,2010) Amankwa, John Opuni
- ItemEstimating the transaction cost indices of public private partnership infrastructure in Ghana (Case study of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly)Donkor, Eric JimifosterPublic Private Partnership infrastructure projects have existed in the field of procurement for some time now however, it implementation in Ghana is at its early stages implying that transaction cost estimation of PPP projects are yet to be explored. The study focused on estimating Transaction Cost Indices for PPP projects undertaken in the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly which happens to be the first of its kind in the Ashanti Region. Two supporting objectives were set to address the aim of the study, they are: firstly, identify areas that substantially contribute to transaction cost of PPP projects and secondly, estimation of transaction cost indices of PPP infrastructure projects. The study relied on data from the works department of the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly on PPP projects concurrently on-going in four of their Sub Metropolitan Assemblies namely Subin, Tafo, Bantama and Kwadaso. They are five (5) projects in all, with most of them being shopping facilities and complexity of the projects varies. Feasibility studies cost tend to be the cost area that substantially contribute higher quota to the Transaction cost of PPP projects in the KMA. Furthermore, the study was able to come out with cost index for all the five (5) projects studied, therefore future projects can rely on the cost index as a guide on transaction cost expenses. Finally, transaction cost threshold was estimated in order to provide a ceiling of estimating the transaction cost index for projects. Therefore, it is recommended that, though private investors pay for the actual cost of the projects MMDAs can also reduce the transaction costs which are incurred during the initial stages of the project. It is recommended that further studies will consider all the Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assembly separately to come out with a transaction cost indices for the respective types of Assemblies.
- ItemHazard Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Tema Municipal Water SupplyNakotey, EbenezerThe study was undertaken to assess the quality status of drinking water in Tema municipal area. The concentrations of some selected toxic heavy metals (copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead, iron, and manganese) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Among the nine selected heavy metals nickel and lead show higher concentration than the WHO recommended limits. This is an indication of pollution however their hazard quotients (HQ) of 0.04875 and 0.034938 is far less than 1. Besides, hazard index and incremental lifetime risk were calculated to be 0.0866 and 4.499 x 109 respectively. Since hazard quotient is far less than 1, and the risk value of 4.499 x 10-9 is also far less than 1 x 10-6 it implies no health risk is associated with the water and therefore their presence had no significant health effect on human life.
- ItemManagement of Root Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato with Castor Bean (Ricinus communis) Aqueous Extracts(2007) Adomako, JosephApart from high cost, increased concern for environmental and health hazards has called for a reduction in the use of synthetic nematicides for nematode control. Experiments were, therefore, conducted to ascertain the nematicidal potential of castor bean’s crude extract and its seven lower concentrations, water being used as control. In vitro studies in Petri dishes showed that castor bean extract and all the different concentrations had toxic effect on eggs and juveniles of root–knot nematodes. Egg hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality decrease with increased dilution of the extract. With an increase in exposure time, juvenile mortality increased. Plant house pot experiments were conducted to observe the effect of the extracts on root-knot nematodes and some growth parameters of tomato plants. The seedlings were either dipped, side-drenched or a combination of both with different concentrations of castor bean extracts. Results showed that plant height, stem girth, fresh shoot and root weights of extract-treated plants were significantly different (P=0.5) from those of the control plants. Numbers of root-knot juveniles and galls on the roots of the extract-treated plants were significantly different (P=0.5) from those of the control. A field trial gave contrary results from those of the plant house experiments. There was no significant difference (P=0.05) between plant height, mean gall score and mean number of juveniles from the tomato roots of all the treatments. The crude castor bean extract was nematotoxic to root-knot nematodes in vitro and potted tomato plants. Aqueous extract of castor bean can, therefore, be used by farmers to manage root-knot nematodes in the nursery before transplanting.
- ItemFactors contributing to low utilization of maternal health services in Kumasi(2007-07-12) Owusu–Danso, JoanaThe primary means of preventing maternal deaths is to provide and increase access to supervised delivery. A greater portion of women attend antenatal clinic yet only a few get quality of care. Previous research in many developed countries showed that underlying causes of high maternal mortality was related to women not utilizing the existing health facilities. This research was conducted to determine the factors contributing to the utilization of maternal health services in Kumasi.The study was descriptive cross- sectional which was qualitative and quantitative in approach. The data were collected from pregnant women and women with children under one year. Tools for data collection include structured interview guide and questionnaires . Information was collected on knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy among community members. Categorical variables were analyzed using EPI INFO The findings of the study revealed that health services are available and that pregnant women are attended to satisfactorily as soon as they get to the hospital. Though cost of service is expensive, few people have registered with the national health insurance scheme. Mothers in the community have a fair idea about complications of pregnancy and labour .Also mothers with education are more likely to be convinced through health education on the need to utilize maternal health care facilities. Majority of the mothers do not believe in the existence of any traditional beliefs about place of delivery but few said beliefs exist. Education on national health insurance should intensified to reach all women in their reproductive ages wherever they are. Ministry of health and Ghana health services (MOH/GIS) should organize workshops on periodic bases to educate nurses and midwives on the need for attitudinal change towards pregnant women.
- ItemEvaluating Service Quality in Automobile Firms in Ghana: a Case Study of Vodi Technik Motors Ltd (VTML)(2007-08-24) Ajongbah, Matthew BatawuraService quality is the major driving force for business sustainability in today's competitive global market place, it is recognized that after sales service, high quality is essential for the success of any automobile firm, when other factors have been considered, it leads to customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and high profitability, it is often said that the salesman sells one vehicle and the workshop sells (after sales service) the rest, therefore a key strategy for customer focused is to measure, monitor and evaluate customer satisfaction. The study therefore aimed at finding out, the factors that account for customer dissatisfaction, the level and nature of after sale service quality in automobile firms in Ghana, the determinants of customer-perceived service quality and to make recommendations to improve service quality in automobile industry in Ghana. Customers perceive service quality mainly in the moment of interaction with the service provider. Thus for the quality management of services, it is important to understand which service encounter the customer perceives as positive and which is negative. Ofi the basis of this understanding the physical environment of the service must be customer friendly. Customer kindness, that is "the front office personnel" approach to the customer and his problems, regardless of the service delivered; is the only factor to have significant relationship with future car servicing intentions, future car purchase intentions, and word- of-month recommendations.
- ItemFactors Contributing to Maternal Mortality: The Case of Bawku West District in the Upper East Region Ghana(2008-07-11) Abotzabire, Azambarima WilliamThis is a cross-sectional study of 341 household on factors that accounts for high maternal mortality in Bawku East district, in Upper East region of Ghana. The objectives of the study were to: ascertain the incidence of non-institutional maternal deaths in the district; determine the differences in backgrounds of maternal deaths and non-maternal death; assess the health seeking behaviour of cases of maternal deaths; and identify and describe the socio-cultural influences that accounted for maternal deaths in the district. The methodology used was a multistage sampling for the administration of interview guide in Tilli /Widnaba, Zebilla and Zongoire sub-districts. In addition, the purposive sampling technique was used to conduct a focus group discussion with men, women and compound heads in the selected communities. The results showed that, a maternal death per household was 158 per 1000 households which occur mainly at home (58%). The trend of maternal death in the communities is increasing, recording seven in 2004 and 37 in 2007. Most (54.8%) of the maternal deaths occurred after the women had delivered. When characteristics of maternal death cases and non-maternal death cases were compared, it was evident that: maternal death cases were significantly occurring among the younger age mothers with (chi square = 21.6, p=0.00); being married reduced the risk of maternal death significantly (chi = 5.34, p = 0.02; OR = 0.35); It was also evident that the risk of maternal death among women with no formal education was 3.27, 2.29 and 8.02 folds compared with the event in mothers who had 1st cycle, 2nd cycle and tertiary educated women respectively. On health seeking behaviour it is demonstrated that maternal death cases (47.2%) did not use ANC services because they were prevented by their compound heads. There are embedded cultural and traditional barriers to accessing maternity services. They are the use of soothsaying, libation, consultation with ancestors and use of herbs for pregnant women before orthodox services is contacted. It is recommended that women and women groups should advocate through the chiefs, opinion leaders, compound heads, and by the facilitative efforts of the district assembly, the district health directorate and Mr. Abotzabire Azambarima William (Author of this document),to help enact by-laws and ensure its’ implementation in curtailing the cultural practices that prevents women for seeking prompt maternity care.
- ItemFactors Influencing the Utilization of Antenatal Care Services in the Bosomtwe District of the Ashanti Region of Ghana.(2008-07-12) Oppong, Kwaku GyamfiIn the year 2005, the Bosomtwe district recorded six (6) maternal deaths. The causes of death included severe anaemia, postpartum haemorrhage, severe diarrhoea and pulmonary embolism. In addition, the district had witnessed a downward trend in antenatal coverage (from 84% in 2004 to 75% in 2005) and supervised deliveries. There had also been an increase in still births (from 15 cases in 2002 to 25 cases in 2005). It was in the light of all these happenings that a research had to be carried out to ascertain reasons why pregnant women and mothers did not utilize Antenatal care services which could help curb these unfortunate situations. This study was carried out to ascertain the factors influencing the utilization of antenatal health services in the Bosomtwe district. Information was elicited from 300 randomly selected respondents. The respondents were either pregnant women or nursing mothers who had given birth within the last twelve months of carrying out the research. The researcher carried out Face–to–face interviews with respondents using a questionnaire. Poor utilization of ANC services was associated with poor education of women on ANC(20.7%), low socio-economic factors (58.7%) far distances with poor roads patients had to travel to health facilities(36%), beliefs that certain ailments were spiritual and could not be treated in a hospital(41%), lack of adolescent friendly ANC and attitude of some health staff. Higher levels of education generally improved ANC attendance, particularly early booking for ANC. Hospital workers, husbands and parents were the greatest influence on ANC attendance. Universal education of the women, improved health education, free ANC services and the construction of health facilities in certain communities were significant suggestions made by the patients for improving the delivery of antenatal care.
- ItemAssessing The Implemention And Practice Of The School Health Program In Some Basic Schools In The Kwabre(2008-07-12) Nana Abena Afrah, BoatengThis was a cross sectional descriptive study of the School Health Program in some basic schools in the Kwabre district. The study was carried out between March and September 2008. The main objective of the study was to assess the implementation and practice of the School Health Program in some basic schools in the Kwabre district. The district has two (2) hospitals, ten (10) Health Centers, ten (10) maternity homes and four (4) clinics serving the population in the district. Some of the issues that bothered the implementation and practice of the program, such as the seemingly weak collaboration between the implementers, sponsorship of the program and the health support services for the program, were studied. The study, therefore, sought to describe the structure of the program as practiced in the district, the physical environment of the schools that promote health, the health services and the role of implementers of the program. The World Health Organization Expanded Program on Immunization (WHO EPI) 30 x 7 cluster survey was used in determining the sample size of the survey. This included 30 basic schools, 30 community health nurses and a total of 210 parents (thus parents of 7 children in each school). This was selected from the eighty-nine (89) communities in the five (5) sub districts. Structured questionnaires and checklists were used for the data collection. The data were analyzed using Epi info version 3.9.1. The study revealed the program is poorly funded and implementers are not fully abreast with an in-depth knowledge about the structure of the School health program. The implementation of the program faces a major systemic challenge in the sense that there are no measures to monitor and evaluate the activities of implementers. Also, the study brought to light the fact that the community/parents are unaware of the role they are to play in supporting the implementation of the program.
- ItemDocumentation of the Bassari Fire Dance(2008-07-12) Enoch, ManiThis thesis sought to document the fire dance of the Bassari people of Ghana. It aims at educating the general public, students of visual art, art educationists and experts in art about the educational significance of the fire dance. Chapter one deals with the Objectives of the study, the Problem setting, and the importance of the study. The main objectives were to identify and describe the Bassari people of Northern Ghana and their Fire dance, and also, to determine the educational and socio-cultural significance of the fire dance. It was important to conduct the study because the outcome of the study would enhance the transmission of the Bassari cultural values in Ghana and beyond. Also, the outcome of the study would be used as tourist attraction to promote cultural tourism in Ghana, particularly in the Northern Region. Chapter two dealt with the review of related literature. These include the Background of the Bassari people, the significance of culture, Documentation of information on art and culture, education and culture, and indigenous festivals. Chapter three explains the Procedure used in getting the research completed. The Qualitative research design was adopted to enable the researcher to provide a narrative description of observations in their natural setting. The research instruments employed in the collection of data include Informal interview, Open-ended questionnaire, Group discussion and Participant observation. The study area was Tatale in the Northern Region of Ghana. The study population comprised fire Priests, Singers, Drummers and those who make the art forms or costume. These made up to 100 respondents, out of which 30% was sampled for interview and observation. The Simple Random sampling technique was used to get a fair representation of the study population. The Cluster or Area sampling technique was also adopted to enable the researcher obtain information from key fire priests living outside the study area. Chapter four presents the main findings. The study found out that the Bassari people live in Tatale in the Northern Region of Ghana. The traditional fire dance is an initiation fire festival into divination. However, the dance could be performed as a cultural fire dance for entertainment. Chapter five discusses the results of the main findings. The study revealed that the Bassari people are Ghanaians living in the Northern Region of Ghana, and Tatale is their hometown. Information on the Bassari people including their fire dance is non-available in all the libraries, and Art Centres visited. The study also established that the fire dance has symbolic, religious, historical, socio-cultural, economical and psychological significance to the Bassari people. The fire dance has implications for public education in terms of cultural tourism. It also has implications for Art Education in terms of the visual art forms involved in it. Chapter six presents the summary, conclusions and recommendations. The study concluded that the Bassari fire dance is fascinating. It is culturally rich to be adopted as a cultural tourist attraction to enhance cultural tourism in Ghana, particularly in the Northern Region. It is recommended that the researcher should make available information on the Fire dance to the National Commission on Culture, and the Tourist Board to be promoted as a cultural tourist attraction. The researcher should provide Authors and Publishers of textbooks on Ghanaian heritage of art and culture extracts on the Bassari fire dance for publication in textbooks for public consumption in order to enhance the transmission of the Bassari cultural values. Finally, the researcher should organize seminars to create public awareness about the cultural values of the fire dance.
- ItemFactors Contributing To Low Utilization Of Skilled Delivery In Ahafo Ano South District Ashanti Region, Ghana(2008-07-12) Mabel, Nai-AdjeiThis was a cross-sectional design to examine the factors affecting utilisation of skilled attendants among women in Ahafo-Ano South district in Ashanti. Using a systematic sampling method, a total of 312 women were interviewed using interview guide in six communities in the district. In addition, six health workers were interviewed and also 10 antenatal clinic sessions were observed. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of prenatal services; estimate the extent of access to skilled delivery and identify potential barriers; assess the districts capacity in providing skilled delivery services; and to identify the socioeconomic and cultural barriers to utilization of skilled delivery services. The results showed that thirty seven percent (37%) of the women delivered outside a health facility. Health workers interaction with pregnant women was satisfactory however, most (75%) of the public health facilities lacked delivery beds. The barriers to use of skilled attendants among the women include: lack of access road (Chi- = 18.10 p=0.00); lack of vehicles (chi= 14.00, p=0.00); and perceived cost of transport (chi = 3.63 p=0.05). Women who used tarred roads to the nearest health facilities were three times (OR = 2.98) more likely to use skilled attendants, and fourteen times (OR = 13.61) than those who lived on farm paths (inaccessible road). Women who have access to vehicles to the nearest health facility are five times (OR = 4.60) more likely to use skilled attendants compared to those who use trucks. Socio-economically, educated women were three times (chi = 29.24, p = 0.00; OR = 3.15) more likely to use skilled attendant, also women with educated husbands were two times (chi = 8.09, p = 0.00; OR = 2.15) more likely to use skilled attendants than those without educated husband. The employment of the women or their partners did not influence the use of skilled attendants (chi = 0.20; p = 0.65) It is concluded that inaccessible roads to health facilities; lack of access to vehicles; low education of women and their husband; and inadequate equipment (delivery beds) at the health facilities accounts for the low utilization of skilled attendants in the Ahafo-Ano South district. It is recommended that the District Assembly, District Health Directorate and Opinion Leaders should collaborate to provide the feeder roads to link communities to the nearest health centre and also intensify education on the use of such services.
- ItemA community survey on the factors influencing the utilization of skilled delivery services in the offinso south(2008-07-12) Obeng, Dr. Joseph BaahThe fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-5) is to improve maternal health by targeting a reduction in maternal mortality ratios by 75% between 1990 and 2015, and increasing the proportion of all births assisted by skilled attendants to at least 90% globally by 2015. Progress towards these targets seems to have slowed down and even stagnated in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa where many women continue to deliver at home without skilled assistance. The Ghana Demographic Health Survey (GDHS) 1988- 2003 reports for instance show that for over two decades, the percentage gain in skilled assistance was just six points, rising from 41% in 1988 to 47 % in 2003. The Offinso District which lies in the Ashanti region of Ghana has observed rising trends in its maternal mortality ratio (MMR) figures over the past three years with a steady decline in the proportion of ANC attendants who deliver in health facilities and thus receive skilled assistance. Marternal Mortality Ratio has risen from 140/100 000 in 2004 to 210/100 000 in 2006 and skilled attendance has declined from 92% to 81% over the same period. To determine the factors influencing the utilization of skilled delivery services in the Offinso district of Ghana and identify the barriers that pregnant women encounter in their bid to access delivery. A descriptive cross sectional study was done between September and October 2008 by administering a structured questionnaire to 400 women between the ages of 15-49 years who had delivered within 12months prior to the survey. Socio-demographic, household level, community, pregnancy care and delivery related factors were collected and analysed. A majority, (97%) of respondents attended ANC at least once, and another 80% of them attended four times or more. Only 63% had skilled assistance at delivery with the rest delivering at home. Barriers cited include transportation (27%); money (23%); short labour (22%) and socio-cultural (11%). Urban residency, (contrast rural) odds ratio (OR)=4.32 (2.82-6.63); women with more than basic formal education, (contrast less) OR=3.55 (2.33-5.40); women living in proximity to a health facility, (contrast living afar) OR=3.60 (1.90-6.72); with relatively higher income (compared to lesser) OR=7.10 (3.7- 13.7) and respondents who paid four or more ANC visits during pregnancy (in contrast to those who paid fewer) OR=8.52 (4.8-15.1) all showed statistical association with the utilization of skilled assistance during labour. ANC coverage is high but delivery care coverage has stagnated at 61% since 2003 GDHS. There are still significant rural urban disparities, and women with lower education, lower monthly earnings and living far from health facilities face challenges accessing skilled care and hence deliver at home. Transportation, money and socio cultural barriers need to be overcome to improve delivery care coverage in district.
- ItemTowards The Millenium Development Goal 5: Assessing The Quality Of Supervised Delivery In The Ga West District, Ghana.(2008-07-12) Patience M., EtseyChild birth is of special value to both men and women in Ghana. Meanwhile childbearing is associated with high maternal mortality in Ghana. To achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5- improve maternal health by reducing the deaths by three-quarters, it is important to improve on the quality of maternal care especially supervised delivery. However not much is being done in this area probably because there is not much empirical data to inform policy. To contribute to providing more empirical evidence, a cross sectional study was designed to assess the quality of supervised delivery in the Ga West district with 325 women having babies 0-3 months and some selected health staff. The data was collected between August and October 2008. Systematic sampling was used to select respondents at the postnatal and child welfare clinic register in rural, peri-urban and urban health facilities in the district. Exit interview was done for all the selected clients and structured questionnaire administered to fifty service providers who were directly involved in child and maternal health care. Observation was also carried out in labour wards in government health facilities. The results showed that supervised delivery in the district was fraught with many challenges most especially in the area of partograph use, infection prevention and resource availability. It was established that partograph use was poor as about 90% of patographs examined were incomplete. Fifty percent (50%) infection prevention practices observed was poor, 71% of staff lamented that resources were lacking in the rural and insufficient in the peri-urban and urban health facilities. It was observed that initial newborn care was neglected, and all attention geared towards maternal care. The encouraging thing was that 91% of clients said that, the nurse- mother relationship was good and labour ward staff were all trained midwives. In conclusion the study revealed that though frantic efforts are underway to improve maternal health it is not adequate to achievement of the MDG5. In the light of the findings, it is recommended that more resources be made available and more training and supervision in the correct use of partographs and infection prevention. The findings have implications on achieving the MDG5.
- ItemAssessing the dropout rate of the expanded programme on immunisation in Asutifi District.(2008-07-12) Akutteh, Hanson MensahThe induction of an immune response to infectious disease by vaccination has become a widely applied and acceptable public health intervention. For immunisation to be effective as a long-term global childhood disease control strategy, it is essential that parents continue to present their children for vaccination. A recent study in assessing the dropout rate of immunization has shown that, immunization coverage in Asutifi District has been high with percentage of fully vaccinated children ranging between 95% in the district and 90% to 97% in the sub-districts. There is an account of high dropout rate of eligible children receiving the vaccines in the sub-district above the National and WHO, recommended level of dropout rate less than 10% (WHO, 2005). The aim of the study was to determine the dropout rate of the Expanded Program on Immunization to assess the ability of the service to hold on to the number of children who started the vaccination. A descriptive cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 300 children between the ages of 12-23 months from households with varying socio-economic status from both urban and rural sub-districts was done to illicit information on the immunization coverage. Approximately 95% of children under the age of two had been completely vaccinated. Averagely about 40% of eligible children in the district had timely received vaccines during EPI programme. Seventy seven percent of children receive their vaccination at the outreach post. The vaccination schedule showed that 4.4% who started BCG vaccination dropped out as at the time of receiving measles vaccine. The dropout rate for DPT1 and DPT 3 was 0.67%. More than 62% of mothers do not present their children for vaccination because they are busy with their economic activities and 31.25% of household are unaware of the need to return for subsequent doses. These shortcomings are affecting the sustainability of routine immunisation programmes and are promoting the growth of a large number of partially immunised children. To protect the continued operations and to enhance the coverage of routine vaccination programmes, it is important that the dropout rate and these difficulties be addressed. The dropout rates for children in the sub-district are between 5% and 10% signifying differences in how each sub-district is able to hold the number of eligible children who were targeted for vaccination. Generally the dropout rate indicates that the efficiency of the service delivered during EPI programme in the sub-district differ from one sub-district to another. The difference that exist in the dropouts within the sub-districts demonstrate a service delivery gap and suggest that greater efforts are required by government and the district health management team to rethink of resource allocation and strengthening processes to improve immunization coverage among rural poor.
- ItemA Retrospective Descriptive Study on Cerebrovascular Accidents at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (Kath) in Kumasi.(2008-07-12) Adjepong, Grace AttahINTRODUCTION: Stroke is a major challenge facing medicine with an alarming statistics of being the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of physical disability worldwide. Recognition and management of risk factors remain key to reducing morbidity and mortality from stroke. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this project was to conduct a retrospective study to assess stroke outcomes among stroke patients at KATH for the years 2006 and 2007. METHODS/ DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study involving review of adult stroke patients records on; age, sex, length of hospital stay, outcome of management (dead/alive), socio-demography, blood pressure on admission and before discharge or death, patient’s knowledge of his/her hypertension status and the most common presenting features. DATA ANALYSIS \ STATISTICAL METHOD Data was first entered in excel 2003 and transported into Epi info version 3.4.1 for further statistical analysis. RESULTS: Stroke constituted 1.3% of total hospital admissions and 6.3% of total hospital deaths within the period under review, 9.1% of total medical adult admissions and 13.2% of the total medical adult mortality were ascribed to stroke. A total of 1,050 cases made up of 537 (51.1%) males and 513 (48.9%) females were involved. 456(43.4%. 95% CI = 40.4%-46.5%) patients died from stroke of which 244 (53.5%) were men (RR= 1.10. 95% CI = 0.96-1.26).The peak age was 66-75 years representing 274 (26.1%) of stroke cases. The mean age of those who died was higher than that of those who survived (65.37 years versus 62.38 years).The average length of hospital stay of those who died was lower than that of those who survived (5.13 days versus 7.07). Hemiplegia/hemiparesia and hypertension were topmost on the list of most commonly presenting features. Fifty-four patients (18%. 95% CI = 13.8%–22.8%) had previous episode of stroke. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Stroke is an important health problem affecting both males and females with hypertension as a major risk factor. Majority of stroke victims belong to the active segment of the population. Attention needs to be focused on patients, health personnel and public education with the intention of reducing as many modifiable risk factors as possible to stop the weakening of the country’s labor force by the disease and to forestall premature deaths.
- ItemThe Frequency and Burden of Severe Injury in Rural and Urban Communities of the Bolgatanga Municipality, Upper East Region, Ghana: An Exploratory Study(2008-07-12) Azure, Benson NsoINTRODUCTION: The problem of injury is quite widespread and can affect anyone severely and yet has not received much public health attention. In Ghana, this is partly so because information available on injuries which makes the size of the injury problem visible to policy-makers is not adequately available to inform the deserved public health action. Information available excludes a good number of injuries in the communities as well as their socio-economic impact on victims. This makes the injury burden difficult to appreciate. OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and burden of severe injury in urban and rural communities of the Bolgatanga municipality, Upper East Region, Ghana. METHODS: Community health workers interviewed respondents in 200 households in some urban and rural communities selected by two-stage random sampling to determine those who were involved in severe injury in a one year reference period (November 2007- October 2008), using a questionnaire/ interview guide. RESULTS: In the rural setting, 100 households, with 826 persons were surveyed whilst 100 households and 876 persons were surveyed in the urban settings. 63 and 48 injured persons were found in rural and urban communities respectively. The total incidence rate of fatal, disabling, and recovered injuries was 65.56 per 1,000 persons per year with a case fatality rate of 2.7. Leading causes of injuries were road traffic accidents in general, largely involving motor-bikes related injuries and deaths as well as occupational injuries in rural settings especially CONCLUSION: Based on the burden of injury and deaths as demonstrated by this survey, prevention measures in both urban and rural communities in the Bolgatanga municipality should make RTAs and occupational injuries top priorities.
- ItemThe Influence of Feeding Practices on Nutritional Status of Children (0-23 Months) in the Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai District of Ghana(2008-07-13) Gyasi, Vida NtiwaaAdequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is fundamental to the development of each child’s full human potential. This study aimed at determining the feeding practices in relation to nutritional status of children under two years in the Bibiani Anhwiaso - Bekwai District of Ghana. A cross sectional study was conducted on 369 pairs of children and mothers which were randomly selected in 2008. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using anthropometric measures such as Weight-for-Age (underweight), Height-for-Weight (wasting) and Height-for-Age (stunting). The breastfeeding and complementary practices of the mothers were examined. The relationship of these feeding practiced provided by mothers and the nutritional statuses of the children were analyzed using chisquare. It was revealed that 18.3% of the children were underweight, 17.0% were stunted and 6.0% were wasted. Close to 60% of the children (57.8%) were introduced late to the breast. Only 8.1% of the children less than 6 months were receiving exclusive breastfeeding. All the three indices of malnutrition were positively associated with the early introduction of complementary foods. About, 60.0% of children under 6 months were receiving bottle feeding. The children who were not being given fruits were 1.5 fold increased in risk of underweight. The feeding practices of most mothers were not as recommended by WHO. There is the need for the promotion of proper infant feeding practices in the Bibiani Anhwaiso district through Health Education.
- ItemAcceptance of HIV Counselling & Testing Among Pregnant Women in the Kumasi Metropolis(2008-07-13) Sakyi, Kwofie GabrielIn Ghana, as in most parts of Africa, south of the Sahara, HIV/AIDS account for a lot of mortality and morbidity in children. Children born to infected mothers acquire infection and progress to clinical diseases. This mother-to-child-Transmission (MTCT), accounts for most of the cases in children less than 15 years. To help address this problem, the Ghana National Policy on HIV/AIDS and STIs has come out with strategies that include the use of routine Counseling and Testing (CT) as a tool for the prevention of MTCT (PMTCT). The main objective of this study was to determine the level of acceptance of this routine HIV CT, as well as factors associated with acceptance among pregnant women in Kumasi Metropolis. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional type, with structured questionnaire as the data collection tool served on 200 pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC) in the Kumasi Metropolis. The sampling frame was pregnant women attending ANC at the three hospitals in the metropolis. The 200 ANC attendants were selected by a systematic random sampling technique. Findings include a high level of acceptance, with 87.5% of respondents accepting to undergo HIV testing either before or after counseling. The effects of socio-demographic characteristics on acceptance of HIV CT were not statistically significant. The knowledge level of pregnant women on HIV/AIDS and Prevention of mother to Child transmission (PMTCT) significantly affected HIV CT acceptance (p = 0.000): Those with adequate knowledge levels were twenty four times more likely to accept HIV CT than those with inadequate knowledge levels. Seeking Spousal permission did not significantly affect acceptance (p= 0.86). However, spousal involvement significantly encouraged HIV CT (p = 0.04) Given the high, level of acceptance which is consistent with high acceptance levels in some African studies, the existing strategy of routine HIV CT, as a tool for PMTCT of HIV, should be sustained, and if possible improved upon.
- ItemComparative study of teaching and learning of textiles in selected Senior High Schools and Vocational Institutions in the Eastern Region of Ghana.(2008-07-13) Sintim, Martin DansoThe study employed the qualitative research method with interviewing, questionnaire administration and observation to examine the scope of teaching and learning of textiles in selected Senior High Schools and Vocational Institutions in four selected districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The research focused on examining the scope and content of the textiles programme followed in the Senior High Schools and Vocational Institutions to identify the strengths and weaknesses of teaching and learning processes in those institutions. The population studied consisted of 350 textiles students and 50 textiles teachers in 11 Senior High Schools and 5 Vocational Institutes. The study revealed that many of the Senior High Schools and Vocational Institutions do not offer their students opportunities for organising art exhibitions and excursions although these are requirements of the textiles syllabus. There are no standardized textbooks to guide teaching and learning of textiles in the SHS and in the Vocational Institutions. In the Vocational Institutions, the teachers teach more practical lessons and less theory as compared to the Senior High Schools. There are inadequate tools, equipment and materials for teachers and students to do practical works in the SHS and Vocational Institutions. It was also observed that most of the Senior High Schools have both broad and traditional looms that could not be used for teaching and learning of weaving because they were broken or not in good shape while Vocational Institutions do not have any looms suggesting that weaving is taught theoretically in these institutions. With few materials available to the selected schools, the teachers allow the students to use improvised tools to help them in skills acquisition lessons. It was found out that the Senior High Schools’ time-table and course content do not give enough scope for teaching and learning of textiles to enable the students further their education or create self employment after school. Unlike the Senior High Schools, the Vocational Institutions’ time- table and course content is enough for self employment, although they have to go through apprenticeship for a year or two before becoming self employed. It is therefore recommended that effective recruitment of trained and professional teachers and efficient administration of the Vocational Skills programme by the MOE should be encouraged in the SHS. The government should also assist the Vocational Institutions financially and to recruit teachers. This is because professional vocational teachers are trained purposely to teach vocational subjects such as Textiles and other related subjects.
- ItemDeterminants of family plannig choices in the Tamale Metropolis of Northern Region, Ghana(2008-07-13) Kolbilla, David ZawumyaBACKGROUND The Tamale Metropolis records one of the highest fertility rates in Ghana estimated at 7.0. It has an estimated population of 366,535. Women in reproductive age constitute about 24% of the population. Contraceptive acceptance rate is reported as 21% by the Metropolitan Health Directorate (MHD). The knowledge of determinants of family planning choices will help policy makers and service providers to come out with interventions that will improve utilization of effective family planning methods in the metropolis. OBJECTIVE To determine family planning choices and their determinants in the Tamale Metropolis. METHODS The study is a cross-sectional analytical study, conducted from July – September 2008 in the Tamale Metropolis. Primary data was obtained from respondents using interviewer administered questionnaires. In-depth interviews of service providers were carried out using interview guides and observation at family planning service delivery points. Secondary data was obtained by reviewing family planning data for the metropolis from the MHD. Study Population- women and men in the reproductive age group (15 to 49 years) in a stable relationship and couples of reproductive age in the Metropolis. Multi stage sampling was used. Random sampling of communities followed by random sampling of households, and then random sampling of individual respondents. Purposive sampling of service providers was done. Random sampling of private pharmacists and dispensary technicians was also done. Data was entered in access software and exported to Stata for analysis. RESULTS A total of 405 people (161 males and 244 females) were interviewed. Mean age of respondents was 27.9. Mean parity was 2. About 40.5% of respondents had at least primary education. The contraceptive acceptance rate was 39%. The most preferred methods were male condoms 56.6%, pills 15.7% and injectables 10.7%. The factors that were significantly associated with non utilization of contraceptive methods include; Islamic religion, lack of formal education, less than 20 years of age and married couples. Christian religion and formal education are positively associated with use of family planning services. Only three centers in the metropolis provides the full range of contraceptive methods including IUD insertion, implants and sterilization (mainly BTL). There was lack of privacy in most family planning service points. The rural areas are poorly covered. CONCLUSION The FP acceptance rate in the metropolis is higher than the metropolitan average but is still on the low side. The predominant contraceptive method of choice was the condom which has a lower effectiveness than most of the other modern contraceptive methods. The prominent determinants of choice of method were education, perceptions about safety, effectiveness and low side effects profile. There is therefore the need to intensify public education on the efficacy and safety of contraceptive methods so as to enhance utilization. FP services should be organized adequately to cover the rural areas and to provide ample privacy.