Prevalence of common bacteria isolates and their susceptibility to antibiotics in malnourished children upto 5 years admitted at the maternal and child health hospital in Kejetia, Kumasi, Ghana

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Malnutrition in children is the outcome of factors that are concerned poor food quality, insufficient food intake and recurring of infectious diseases. World Health Organization in 2011 estimated that 178 million children were stunted and 115 million children were underweight. Heikki in (2001) stated that the incidence and impact of life threatening bacterial infections in children across Africa have not been quantified and these bacterial infections can result in severe malnutrition. The study was to determine the prevalence of common bacteria isolates in malnourished children who are upto 5 years admitted at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital. Samples of urine, blood and stool were taken from 200 malnourished children alongside with administration of questionnaires. Samples were subjected to laboratory analysis such as culture and sensitivity and biochemical test for identification of bacteria. Out of 200 malnourished children, severe acute malnutrition (SAM) was found in 71.1% and 27.7% were moderately malnourished. Children (65.0%) were marasmic and 35.0% suffered from kwashiorkor. Of the malnourished children, who 63.5% had diarrhoea, 49.5% presented with vomiting and 40.5% presented with fever. Bacteria isolated from urine were Klebsiella sp (43.3%), Escherichia coli (30.0%), Pseudomonas sp (13.3%), Salmonella sp (6.7%), Enterobacter sp (3.3%) and Proteussp (3.3%). For blood samples, Staphylococcus aureus (53.6%) was the highest isolate, followed by Streptococcus sp (25.0%). Out of 38 stool samples, Escherichia coli (42.1%) was the highest isolated species followed by Klebsiella sp (21.1%) and Proteus sp (18.4%). Escherichia coli, Proteus sp, Salmonella sp and Enterobacter sp were resistant to 100% Ceftriaxone. Pseudomonas sp and Salmonella sp were resistant to 100% Ampicillin. Staphylococcus aureus (100%) was resistant to Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Streptococcus sp (100%) was susceptible to Gentamicin, 71.4% was susceptible to Azithromycin and 57.1% was vi susceptible to Chloramphenicol. Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, how the child is fed, daily feeding periods, surrounding where food is bought or prepared and storage of feeding tools of malnourished children were found to be factors that predisposed children to malnourishment.
A thesis submitted to the Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Microbiology.
Malnutrition, Children, Health hospital, Maternal hospital