Browsing by Author "Larbie, Christopher"
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- ItemAcalypha wilkesiana ‘Inferno’ Is Nephroprotective Against Gentamicin and Cisplatin: Biochemical, Histological and Immunohistochemical Evidence(Iranian Journal of Toxicology, 2020-10) Larbie, Christopher; Emikpe, Benjamin O.; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Jarikre, Theophilus A.; Adjei, Clement O.: Kidneys exposure to toxins can cause injuries, leading to their functional impairments. Traditionally, plants have been used for the treatment of renal disorders and numerous medicinal plants have been tested for their nephroprotective effects, in such cases as gentamicin (GM) and cisplatin (Cisp)-induced nephrotoxicity. This study assessed the ability of Acalypha wilkesiana’s extract to counteract its toxic effect based on the biochemical, histological and proinflammatory cytokines components in rats. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups (n=4 each) and administered the following treatments: a) normal control (1 mL/kg body weight normal saline from days 1-10); b) nephrotoxin (GM 120 mg/kg, days 2-7; or Cisp 7 mg/kg on day 3); c) standard drug (120 mg/kg Silymarin plus GM or Cisp, days 1-10); and, d) extract groups (100 or 250 mg/kg, days 1-10 plus GM). Blood samples were collected and subjected to hematological and biochemical evaluations while kidney tissue samples were examined for histopathological alterations, pro- and antioxidants, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results: Treatment of the rats pre-exposed to GM or Cisp with the extract decreased the serum creatinine, urea and MDA levels. The GST and GPx levels were also restored in rats. Glomerular atrophy with tubular epithelial necrosis induced by either nephrotoxin was restored to near normal. The expression of COX-2 following the administration of either nephrotoxin was reversed after treatment with the extract. Conclusion: The A. wilkesiana extract exhibited significant nephroprotective property, which could potentially be regarded as a promising alternative to the management of renal diseases.
- ItemAcalyphawilkesiana ‘inferno’hydroethanolicleafextracthas protectiveeffectoncarbontetrachloride-inducedsubacute toxicityinanimals(Biomedical Research and Therapy, 2020-05) Larbie, Christopher; Emikpe, Benjamin O.; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Nyarko, Ruby A.; Jarikre, Theophilus A.; Adjei, Clement O.; Aseidu, Emmanue lB.Introduction: Liverfibrosisisoneofthemostcommonclinicalmanifestationsofhepaticdiseases. However, though many synthetic drugs exist for the treatment and prevention of liver diseases, liver injuries still persist. The present study, therefore, sought to investigate the subacute protective effects of Acalphyawilkesiana against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in animals. Methodology: Liver injury was induced in experimental animals by administering CCl4 (1:1 v/v in olive oil, intraperitoneally (i.p.), twice weekly for 8 weeks) after pre-treatment with extract of A. wilkesiana(AWE).AWE(250mg/kg)andSilymarin(120mg/kg)wereadministeredorally(dailyfor8 weeks). Thehepatoprotectiveeffectwasstudiedbyassayingtheactivityofliverenzymes,suchas alanineaminotransferase(ALT),aspartateaminotransferase(AST),alkalinephosphatase(ALP),and alpha-fetoprotein. Theeffectofthetreatmentsonliverprooxidants(e.g. malondialdehyde[MDA]) andantioxidants(e.g. superoxidedismutase[SOD],reducedglutathione[GSH],glutathioneperoxidase [GPx], and glutathione transferase [GST]), as well as inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin [IL]-17, IL-23, nuclear factor kappa beta [NF-kB], and cycloxygenase-1 [COX-1]) and the histology of the liver were also examined. Results: The activity of liver function biomarkers changed significantly upon CCl4 administration; increases in ALT, total and direct bilirubin, and some fibrosis indices (e.g. alpha-fetoprotein and APRI [p<0.05-0.001, compared with normal]) were observed. Co-administration of AWE with CCl4 restored these to normal levels. The intensity of structural alterations revealed that the AWE treatment has protective potential against subacute liver injury. AWEtreatmentalsoreducedtheexpressionofIL-17,1L-23,NF-kBandCOX-1,underscoringitsantiinflammatory properties. Conclusion: The results of the current study generally suggest that hydroethanolicleafextractsofA.wilkesianainfernopossesssomesubacuteprotectiveactivitybyimproving liver function and inhibition of inflammation, and could be developed as a potent antifibroticagent.
- ItemAqueous ethanolic extract of Acalypha inferno accelerates the clearance of glucose in normoglycaemic rats(The Pharma Innovation Journal, 2018-01) Larbie, Christopher; Oduro, Juliana; Tofah, Jesse JohnGlucose tolerance refers to the body’s ability to metabolise glucose within a stipulated time interval. Failure of the body to use glucose results in hyperglycaemia and progressively to diabetes. Acalypha inferno (family Euphorbiaceae) is an ornamental plant found widely in the tropics of Africa and known for its phytoremediating properties. The study was aimed at investigating the effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Acalypha inferno on oral glucose tolerance in normoglycaemic rats. A 50% hydro-ethanolic extract of the leaves was prepared, and the oral glucose tolerance effect of the plant assessed for 14 days in normoglycaemic rats at doses of 100mg, 250mg and 500mg/kg body weight. Glibenclamide (10mg/kg) was used as a standard drug. The effect of treatment on body weight, OGTT at day 7 and 14, lipid profile and kidney function were assessed. On day 7, FBG level increased from 4.93±0.29mmol/l to 25.03±0.93mmol/l after 1 hour and 17.53±4.50mmol/l after 3 hours in normal group. Extract and drug treated groups prevented such increases at all doses (p<0.001). FBG levels were restored to basal levels after 8 hours. Total cholesterol increased in the 250 mg group with a significant increase in LDL levels in the 100mg, 250mg and 500mg group compared to the normal. There was no significant difference in relative kidney weight, urea and creatinine levels. The hydro-ethanolic extract of Acalypha inferno possesses glucose tolerance abilities in normoglycaemic rats.
- ItemAQUEOUS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ACALYPHA INFERNO LEAVES IS SAFE IN ANIMALS(International Journal of Phamaceutical Sciences and Research, 2018-06) Larbie, Christopher; Nyarko, H. N.; Tofah, J. J.; Torkornoo, D.Acalypha inferno(AI) is a well-known ornamental plant, presently with no known documentation concerning its therapeutic use and safety profile. However, other plants of the same genus, Acalypha, have been reported to have various uses ranging from food to medicine with their related adverse effects. This study therefore focused on the acute and subchronic toxicity effects of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Acalypha inferno leaves (AIE) in animals. The acute toxicity study was performed using the fixed dose method. In the subchronic assessment, both male and female rats were separately administered with AIE at doses of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg twice daily for 28 days. Change in body weight, relative organ weight, haematological parameters and biochemical parameters were recorded and analysed. In the acute toxicity study, no deleterious effect was observed up to 5000 mg/kg, hence the LD50≥5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, significant increase in weight was observed at all doses in male rats whilst a significant decrease was observed only at 500 mg/kg in female rats. A significant increase in weight of uterus was also observed at 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg. Decreased levels of ALT, AST, creatinine, WBC and P-LCR were observed, whereas increasing levels of FBG, platelet count and total bilirubin were observed in male rats at high doses. AIE produced no significant adverse effects and could therefore be considered safe with controlled use.
- ItemDietary Pattern and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Hypertensive Outpatients and Associated Effect on Target Organ Damage(Journal of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, 2019-06) Atule, Monica Talata; Larbie, Christopher; Afriyie, CollinsHypertension is a major global public health problem due to its related high morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries, with a prevalence of 46% in the adult population. The study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among hypertensive outpatients and its associated effect on target organs. Questionnaire was administered to 150 hypertensive outpatients and 50 non-hypertensives. Anthropometrics such as body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, visceral fat, blood pressure and biochemical parameters including lipid profile, urea, AST, ALT, and coronary risk were determined using standard procedures. Dietary pattern of hypertensives was not different from non-hypertensives. Metabolic syndrome was found to be significantly prevalent among hypertensive group than non-hypertensive group. Among cardiovascular disease markers, high coronary disease risk was significantly higher among participants with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome (p=0.000). Coronary risk and ALT had weak, significant positive correlation in patients with metabolic syndrome. In effect, there is a high risk of heart, kidney and liver damage in hypertensives than non-hypertensives, which require comprehensive intervention and monitoring to reduce this burden of the disease.
- ItemEVALUATION OF THE ANTI - PROLIFERATIVE EFFECT, ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF FICUS PUMILA LINN(International Journal of Phamaceutical Sciences and Research, 2019-05) Torkornoo, Dennis; Larbie, Christopher; Agbenyegah, Sefakor; Dowuona, Jasmine Naa Norkor; Appiah-Oppong, Regina; Dotse, Eunice; Aning, Abigail; Adu, Bright; Sinclear, CalebThis study sought to evaluate the heavy metal content of the raw powder and extract of the plant, the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant effect by the use of DPPH assay, the total phenolic content using Folin Ciocalteu assay and the cytotoxic effect using the MTT Assay of Ficus pumila ethanolic extract, methanolic and hydro fractions on liver cancer cells (HepG2), Leukemic cells (Jurkat) and normal liver cells (Chang). FTIR and Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the functional groups and major constituents of the most active fraction of F. pumila. Alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, saponins, and tannins were present in the ethanolic extract of F. pumila. The heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of Iron in both the raw powder (1.97 ± 0.11 mg/l) and extract (0.92 ± 0.02 mg/L). Zinc was also detected in both the raw powder (1.19 ± 0.00 mg/l) and extract (0.6595 ± 0.02 mg/l). The results from the FTIR revealed the presence of alkynes, alkyl halides, aromatics and aliphatic amines common to all fractions and compounds such as Phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-Dimethylethyl) and Dodecane, 2,6, 10-trimethyl were detected in the samples by GC-MS. The DPPH assay also showed that all the fractions scavenged DPPH free radical in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the positive control (Ascorbic acid) and positively correlated to the phenolic contents. The MTT assay revealed that methanolic fraction was selective towards the Jurkat cell lines (Selectivity Index = 2.822). This increases the prospects that this plant contains compound(s) which could serve as leads for novel anticancer drugs.
- ItemExtracts of Ageratum Conyzoides L. Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride – Induced Toxicity in Rats through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress(Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2019-01) Sarfo-Antwi, Frederick; Larbie, Christopher; Babatunde, DuduyemiAims: The present study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities of 50% hydroethanolic leave extracts of the Ageratum conyzoides and fractions on carbon tetrachloride - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Study Design: A total of 30 Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study with six groups of five animals each. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, between April 2016 and July 2017. Methodology: Extracts were characterised by basic phytochemical screening, FTIR, GC-MS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteau assays. Hepatoprotective activities were assessed using the CCl4 model (1 ml/kg) and extracts tested at 250 mg/kg bwt and Silymarin as standard drug (100 mg/kg bwt). Serum liver and kidney function, as well as antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH, MDA and MPO) in liver and kidney homogenate were assayed. Histological examinations were made on the livers and kidneys. Results: Results showed the extract treatments resulted in significant increase in SOD, CAT and GSH levels and a significant decrease in MDA and MPO level against CCl4 both in liver and kidney as well as the restoration of kidney and liver function to near normal levels. Biochemical data was corroborated by histological observations. Conclusion: The present investigation suggests that A. conyzoides crude extract possesses remarkable hepato- and nephroprotective properties and this can be attributed to the inhibitory effect on oxidative stress.
- ItemGeophagia, nutrition and health of women with pregnancy-induced hypertension(African Health Sciences, 2018-11) Sackey, Deborah Sakua; Larbie, Christopher; Mensah, Faustina OBackground: Calcium is a major nutrient implicated in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Aside dietary sources, geophagia has been reported to provide calcium needed to prevent PIH. These soils are shown to contain significant amount of heavy metals which have been associated with hypertension. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between geophagia and PIH, assess the dietary intakes and health of participants. Methods: This study was a case-control involving 30 women with PIH and 70 normotensive pregnant women. Results: Geophagia was not significantly associated with PIH. Women with PIH practicing geophagia recorded significantly low levels of haemoglobin, calcium and ferritin. Hypertensives recorded impaired fasting blood glucose (5.77±1.71mmol/L, p=0.051), higher levels of urea (3.60±1.29 mmol/L, p=0.000) and creatinine (382.67±11.66 µmol/L, p=0.000). Percentage intakes of macronutrients for normotensives were within the Adequate Macronutrient Distribution Range and PIH group recorded higher intakes of carbohydrate (72.75±16.16 %), lower protein (9.77±5.61 %) and fat (17.15±11.99%). Dietary calcium intakes in both groups were lower than recommended (< 1,000 mg/day). Conclusion: In this study, geophagia during pregnancy is not directly associated with PIH but is detrimental to maternal health. The pregnant women in this study had considerably low intakes of energy and nutrients. There is a need for measures to ensure adequate maternal nutrition for a positive health and pregnancy outcomes.
- ItemGriffonia simplicifolia (DC.) Baill. attenuates gentamicin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicty in rats(Comparative Clinical Pathology, 2019-03) Nyarko, Ruby A.; Larbie, Christopher; Anning, Alexander K.; Baidoo, Philip K; Emikpe, Benjamin O.; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Jarikre, Theophilus A.Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney conditions. However, most conventional drugs are not adequate for treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of 50% hydroethanolic leaf extract of Griffonia simplicifolia (DC.) Benth in drug-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in experimental animals by administering gentamicin and cisplatin after pretreatment with hydroethanolic extract of G. simplicifolia (GSE). GSE at 100 and 250 mg/kg were administered for 7 and 10 days by oral gavage in the gentamicin and cisplatin models, respectively. Silymarin (120 mg/kg) was given as the standard nephroprotective drug. Nephroprotective effect was studied by assaying the activity of kidney function biomarkers such as creatinine, urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations. The effect of the treatments on kidney antioxidant enzymes (SOD, MDA, GSH, GPx, GST and NO), inflammatory cytokines (IL 17, IL 23 and COX-2) and the histology of the kidney were also examined. The activity of all the kidney function biomarkers changed significantly in gentamicin and cisplatin-treated rats; increased in urea and creatinine concentration and decreased in Na, K and Cl concentrations. Co-administration of GSE with the nephrotoxins restored these to normal levels. It also reduced NO concentration in both the gentamicin and cisplatin model and increased GPx concentration in the gentamicin model. GSE showed a higher percentage protection than silymarin, a standard nephroprotective drug, in both the gentamicin and cisplatin models. Intensity of structural alterations revealed that the GSE treatments have a protective potential against nephrotoxicity. GSE treatments improved expressions of IL17 and IL23, thus underscoring the proinflammatory and healing properties of GSE, respectively. The results generally indicate that leaves of G. simplicifolia possess nephroprotective activity.
- ItemHepatoprotective and Toxicity Studies on Annona Muricata Linn. Leaves for the Treatment of Jaundice in Animals(2012-06-16) Larbie, ChristopherLiver diseases and jaundice have continued to be a major health problem in the world's population with most conventional drugs not being adequate for treatment ...
- ItemHepatoprotective Potential of Hura crepitans L.: A Review of Ethnomedical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies(Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 2020-03) Owojuyigbe, Oluwole S.; Firempong, Caleb K.; Larbie, Christopher; Komlaga, Gustav; Emikpe, Benjamin O.Herbal medicines are the main source of treatment of diseases in non-urban centres of the developing world. Secondary metabolites obtained from herbal sources contain bioactive phytochemicals, many of which have been the origin for the development of novel pharmaceutical drugs. Hura crepitans L. (Euphorbiaceae) or sandbox tree has been beneficial in many ethnomedicinal applications as a purgative, emetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and the treatment of leprosy. Toxicological, phytochemical and bactericidal studies have also been documented. This paper reviews the potential of the Hura crepitans plant in protecting the liver against drug-induced toxicity. The paper dwells extensively on the ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the plant. In achieving the above, intensive analyses of books and published peer-reviewed journal articles were carried out using credible scientific databases. Four main phytochemicals were revealed to be contained in Hura crepitans stem-bark. Their protective effects were enunciated using animal models. However much more biochemical studies need to be done to establish the hepatoprotective potentials of the various parts and various phytochemicals of Hura crepitans with the need for more preclinical and clinical studies. We, therefore, present in this paper efforts to elucidate and bring to the fore the therapeutic potentials of Hura crepitans plant.
- ItemHydroethanolic Extracts of Ficus pumila Linn. Is Protective against Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Damage in Rats(Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2018-06) Larbie, Christopher; Siaw, Portia A; Zon, Solomon; Appiah-Kubi, KwameN(3%1(2 Linn. has been reported to be rich in phenols, hepatoprotective and antiproliferative on leukemic cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of hydroethanolic leaves extracts of N5%1(2 on gentamicin-induced kidney damage in rats. Twentyseven female Wistar albino rats were divided into 9 groups (n=3). Group 1 being normal; group 2 was the gentamicin (GM) induced only (80 mg/kg b/w ip for 5 days); groups 3, 4, & 5 rats were treated with gentamicin (80mg/kg b/w ip for 5 days) and N5%1(2 extract at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg b/w orally respectively; groups 6, 7 & 8 rats received the extract only (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg b/w orally) respectively and group 9 being gentamicin and silymarin (100 mg/kg b/w orally) for 21 days. Blood samples were taken 24 hrs after the experimented period and biochemical and haematological parameters were analyzed. GM nephrotoxicity was characterized by significantly increased levels of serum creatinine, urea, sodium, potassium and WBC, while reduced RBC, HGB, MCH and MCV levels compared with normal group. Rats treated with gentamicin and the extract showed a significant reduction in the levels of these markers. The results suggest that hydroethanolic extract of N(3%1(2 leaves protect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in female Wistar albino rats.
- ItemMethoxy-flavones identified from Ageratum conyzoides induce capase -3 and -7 activations in Jurkat cells(Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2017-10) Acheampong, Felix; Reilly, John; Larbie, Christopher; Spencer, Matthew; Gunderson, Karl; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Howson, Christopher; Porier, Jennifer; Joyce, Kellie; Jeliazkova, Valentina; Voytek, Sarah; Ginsburg-Moraff, Carol; Thibodeaux, Stefan; Kublbeck, Jill; Austin, StevenNew therapies for leukemia are urgently needed due to adverse side effects, tumor resistance and lack of selectivity of many chemotherapeutic agents in clinical use. Ageratum conyzoides has been used in folklore medicine for managing leukemia and other cancers. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of fractions, sub-fractions and purified compounds from the ethanol leaf extracts of A. conyzoides against Jurkat cells-model for acute T cell leukemia. A two-dimensional purification process using normal phase flash, followed by reverse phase purification was necessary to isolate pure methoxy-flavones, which were further characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and MS-MS. The effect of fractions or pure compounds on cell viability was determined using either the MTT reagent or CellTiter-Blue® assay, while the caspase-3 and -7 activation was tested with Caspase-Glo® 3/7 assay. Prediction of compounds’ drug disposition profiles in vivo was measured with biomimetic affinity chromatography methodologies.