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|Title: ||The Antimalarial Potential of Three Ghanaian Medicinal Plants|
|Authors: ||Komlaga, Gustav|
Beniddir, Mehdi Ahmed
Loiseau, Philippe M
|Keywords: ||Medicinal plants|
|Issue Date: ||2015|
|Publisher: ||Herbal Medicine|
|Citation: ||Herbal Medicine: Open Access Vol. 1 No. 1:4 2015|
|Abstract: ||Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana and many indigenes,
especially those in rural areas, resort to the use of medicinal plants to treat the
disease. The plants: Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), Theobroma cacao L.
(Malvaceae) and Tridax procumbens (L.) L. (Compositae) are used solely or in
combination with other medicinal plants to manage malaria and its associated
conditions. The leaves of the plants which are normally the main parts employed,
were studied for their phytochemistry and antiplasmodial activity to establish
their chemical profile and verify the antimalarial claim.
Plant materials were subjected to basic phytochemical screening to
identify the major secondary metabolites. The aqueous extracts were evaluated
against chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 P. falciparum and chloroquine-resistant W2
P. falciparum strains, using the fluorescence-based SYBR® green I method to
determine their antiplasmodial activity.
Basic phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence
of tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids in all three plant materials. T. cacao and P.
americana, in addition, contained purine base alkaloids, triterpenoids including
saponins. The aqueous extracts of the leaves showed antiplasmodial activity
against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 P. falciparum (9.50 ± 1.38 ≤ IC50 ≤ 10.15 ±
0.45 μg/mL) and against chloroquine-resistant W2 P. falciparum strains (6.40 ±
1.94 ≤ IC50 ≤ 44.94 ± 1.12 μg/mL). The aqueous extract of T. cacao was the most
active and was more active against W2 than 3D7 P. falciparum. Only T. procumbens
displayed cytotoxicity (CC50<25 μg/mL).
Conclusion: T. cacao, T. procumbens and P. americana possess antiplamodial
activity. The activity illustrates their antimalarial potential, and provides rationale
for their use in traditional malaria therapy in Ghana. It thus paves the way for
further study of these plants for antiplasmodial lead compound(s).|
|Description: ||This Article was published by Herbal Medicine: Open Access Vol. 1 No. 1:4 2015|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Health Sciences|
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