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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/9590

Title: Soil and Water Conservation Society Ankeny, Iowa
Authors: Junge, Birte
Abaidoo, R.C.
Chikoye, David
Stahr, Karl
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Soil and Water Conservation Society
Citation: Soil and Water Conservation Society 945 SW Ankeny Road Ankeny, IA 50023 USA 800-THE-SOIL (800-843-7645) www.swcs.org
Abstract: Of the projected increase in world population of about 3 billion between 2008 and 2050, about half of it may occur in Africa where soil resources are already under great stress. The agrarian stagnation, plaguing food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since the early 1970s, may exacerbate with the projected climate change along with the attendant increase in risks of soil and environmental degradation. Soil degradation and desertification are already severe issues in SSA, where smaller size and resource-poor farmers follow extractive farming practices. These farmers can neither afford the much needed off-farm input essential to sustainable use of soil and water resources, nor are they sure of their effectiveness because of the harsh climate, structurally fragile soils, unfavorable land tenure situations, and the human dimensions issues of gender and social inequity. Because of the increase in population, the per capita arable land area in many countries of SSA is declining rapidly. The per capita land area (ha) in 1960, 1990, and 2025, respectively, is 0.14, 0.08, and 0.03 for Congo; 0.50, 0.29, and 0.11 for Ethiopia; 0.31, 0.13, and 0.05 for Tanzania; 0.50, 0.28, and 0.14 for Zimbabwe; and 0.68, 0.34, and 0.14 for Nigeria. The problem of land scarcity for food crop production is aggravated by rapid urbanization, conversion to nonagricultural uses, and severe soil degradation. Land area affected by soil degradation in Africa is estimated at 227 Mha by water erosion, 186 Mha by wind erosion, 19 Mha by physical degradation, and 62 Mha by chemical degradation, of which 15 Mha is by salinization. Crop yields and agronomic productivity are also constrained by recurring drought stress exacerbated by scarcity of renewable fresh water resources and highly variable/unpredictable rains. Per capita renewable fresh water availability (m3 per person y–1) in 1950, 1995, 2025, and 2050, respectively, was 5,967, 1,950, 807, and 517 for Ethiopia; 2,730, 1,787, 1,034, and 803 for Zimbabwe; and 8,502, 2,506, 1,175, and 827 for Nigeria. The minimum per capita renewable fresh water required is 1,000 m3 y–1. Many countries in Sahel (e.g., Senegal, Burkina Faso, Mali, Chad, Niger, Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia) are prone to severe drought stress and water scarcity.
Description: This was published by Soil and Water Conservation Society 945 SW Ankeny Road Ankeny, IA 50023 USA 800-THE-SOIL (800-843-7645)
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/9590
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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