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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/9399

Title: Agricultural use of marginal-quality water— opportunities and challenges
Authors: Abaidoo, Robert C.
Attia, Fatma
El‑Guindy, Samia
Issue Date: 28-Feb-2007
Publisher: IWMI
Citation: IWMI Part 4 Ch 8-16
Abstract: Millions of small-scale farmers around the world irrigate with marginal-quality water, often because they have no alternative. There are two major types of marginal-quality water: wastewater from urban and peri-urban areas, and saline and sodic agricultural drainage water and groundwater. Around cities in developing countries, farmers use wastewater from residential, commercial, and industrial sources, sometimes diluted but often without treatment. Sometimes farmers in deltaic areas and tailend sections of large-scale irrigation schemes irrigate with a blend of canal water, saline drainage water, and wastewater. Still others irrigate with saline or sodic groundwater, either exclusively or in conjunction with higher quality surface water. Many of those farmers cannot control the volume or quality of water they receive. Wastewater often contains a variety of pollutants: salts, metals, metalloids, pathogens, residual drugs, organic compounds, endocrine disruptor compounds, and active residues of personal care products. Any of these components can harm human health and the environment. Farmers can suffer harmful health effects from contact with wastewater, while consumers are at risk from eating vegetables and cereals irrigated with wastewater. Application of wastewater has to be carefully managed for effective use. In contrast to wastewater, saline and sodic water contains salts that can impair plant growth but rarely contains metals or pathogens. However, it can lead to soil salinization and waterlogging, which impair productivity on millions of hectares of agricultural land. Irrigating successfully with saline or sodic water requires careful management to prevent near-term reductions in crop yield and long-term reductions in productivity.
Description: An article published by IWMI Part 4 Ch 8-16, 2007
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/9399
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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