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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/4740

Title: Physico-Chemical and Biological Quality of Kankama River in the Berekum Municipality
Authors: Sah, Benjamin Kwadwo
Issue Date: 14-Jun-2012
Abstract: The study was carried out in the Berekum Municipality to investigate the physico-chemical and biological quality of Kankama River. Three different sampling sites were located on the main stem of the Kankama River, namely Amangoase, Kookoase and Kyiribaa. Water samples were taken once every month from these sites from December, 2010 to March, 2011. The water samples were analyzed for total coliforms, faecal coliforms, E. coli, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, total hardness, pH, phosphate and nitrate. Amangoase sampling site was characterized with mean pH (6.428), conductivity (503.725 µs/cm), turbidity (31.155 NTU), alkalinity (209.75 mg/L), total hardness (130.6 mg/L), total coliforms (6.239- log10 of geometric mean CFU/100 ml), faecal coliforms (4.024- log10 of geometric mean CFU/100 ml), and E. coli (2.45-log10 geometric mean CFU/100 ml). Water samples analysis from Kookoase also showed pH (5.676), conductivity (320.75 µs/cm), turbidity (24.4 NTU), total dissolved solids (241.25 mg/L), Alkalinity (144.25 mg/L), total hardness (86.42 mg/L), total coliforms (5.379 log10 of geometric mean CFU/100 ml), faecal coliforms (3.765 log10 of geometric mean CFU/100 ml) and E. coli (1.843 log10 of geometric mean CFU/100 ml). Similarly, a pH of (5.977), conductivity (339 µs/cm), turbidity (11.76 NTU), total dissolved solids (251.55 mg/L), alkalinity (127.75 mg/L), total hardness (80.81 mg/L), total coliforms (4.563 log10 of geometric mean CFU/100 ml), faecal coliforms (3.44 log10 of geometric mean CFU/100 ml) and E. coli (1.616 log10 of geometric mean CFU/100 ml) were recorded at the Kyiribaa sampling site. At all the sites, mean indicator bacteria numbers were very high above the WHO guideline values of zero CFU per 100 ml. These high numbers were due to human faeces and cow dung from livestock confinements through storm water runoff from surrounding communities and direct defaecation into the river. Again, turbidity, conductivity and phosphate levels measured were above the WHO guideline values except total dissolved solids, total hardness and Nitrate which were below the guideline values. Though alkalinity have no health based guideline values, however its level was not satisfactory at all the sampling sites. In general, the level of pollution of Kankama River reflected the land use of its catchment- refuse dump, slaughter house, motor mechanics activities, car washing, gardening, livestock activities and human settlement. In order to help curb the growing pollution of the river, it is recommended that the Municipal Assembly with her environmental department should institute measures like tree planting along the banks of the river; and relocation of the existing refuse dump, slaughter house and the car washing bay. Again, the inhabitants around the river catchment area should be educated on the adverse impacts of their activities on the river water quality and the subsequent cross-loop effect on their health.
Description: A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Environmental Science, College Of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Award of the Degree of Master of Science (Environmental Science),2012
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/4740
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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