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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/4047

Title: The potential and constraints for Payment of Ecosystem Services (PES) in Ghana: a case study in Ankasa Conservation Area.
Authors: Ashia, Stephen
Issue Date: 19-Jun-2010
Abstract: Markets for ecosystem services are being promoted by global institutions, transnational NGOs and some governments in industrialised and developing countries. However, the role of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in the wider development context is less well explored despite its potential to increase overall conservation and/or restoration of an ecosystem and societal benefits. The study was conducted with the main objective of assessing the potentials and constraints for the implementation of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in Ankasa Conservation Area and Ghana as a whole. The study conducted a general assessment of the institutional framework and key stakeholders and a local case study in order to analyse and evaluate the main components (potential environmental services, providers, buyers, and the local institutional framework) of a PES scheme. The study site was the fringe area of the Ankasa Conservation Area (ACA) in the Western Region of Ghana. Eleven communities were randomly selected with a total of 157 respondents. The study employs semi-structured questionnaires, focus group discussions and direct field observation to obtain primary data. Based on the nature of data gathered, a combination of data analyses techniques were used. The analysis took the form of descriptive, explanatory or interpretive analysis and relied mostly on qualitative data supported by quantitative data where necessary. The study reveals that PES itself is already discussed by state and non-state stakeholders. The study also revealed that carbon sequestration and storage, biodiversity protection or restoration, watershed protection and landscape beauty are the Environmental Services that have potentials to be traded in Ghana. However, water related services are the most promising services for a PES in Ghana. For watershed protection as a traded environmental service, Government of Ghana, Ghana Water Company, Ghana Electricity Company/ Volta River Authority and Water Resources Commission were found to be the potential service buyers. Although, a lot of Environmental Service providers were mentioned, farmers were considered as the most appropriate service providers for the implementation of a PES scheme in the fringe areas of the ACA as they cause a tangible threat to Ecosystem Services through unsustainable land- and resource use practices. It was again found out that NGOs are most trusted by the majority of stakeholders. Therefore, the NGOs could serve as potential intermediaries in PES schemes by facilitating negotiation processes, monitoring the agreements, managing payment flows and organizing providers of the ES. The kinds of compensation prefer and projected amount that farmers are willing to accept were identified. The use of Agroforestry as a land use system for the provision of ecosystems services as well as food and cash crops and construction materials was identified. Agroforestry technologies such as riparian buffers, shaded cocoa, coconut and rubber agroforests and the plantation of rattan in cocoa and coconut trees were proposed. Constraints that could impede the implementation of the PES in Ghana were identified, which include: current system of land tenure, benefit sharing and the perverse pricing of cash crops threaten the success of a PES that aims at financing conservation, afforestation and reforestation. Missing interest in conservation issues in Ghana, the extinction of wildlife, illegal extraction and trade of Non – Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) bear constraints for PES schemes that deal with biodiversity and landscape beauty. Due to limited land size and high land pressure, farmers see tree growing as a threat to their food security. It was recommended that for the set up of any future PES scheme in the off reserve area would not only result in environmental benefits to the ACA itself but rather help to minimize the land use pressure on the reserve. It is recommended that an off-reserve PES based on the supply of environmental services provided by agroforestry systems that achieve various environmental benefits but with the effect of lowering the vulnerability of the local people should be designed. Again, the establishment of Community Resource Management Area which has the potential to act on behalf of PES providers should be strengthened. The development of PES is vital for improving the management of Ghana’s forest ecosystems to ensure their conservation and sustainable use.
Description: A thesis submitted to the Board of Postgraduate Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Science in Agroforestry, 2010
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/4047
Appears in Collections:College of Agric and Natural Resources

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