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|Title: ||An assessment of practices of prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B at health facilities in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.|
|Authors: ||Issaka, Aisha Ali|
|Keywords: ||Hepatitis B virus infection|
mother- to- child transmission
|Issue Date: ||24-Mar-2021|
|Abstract: ||INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains the leading contributor to
global prevalence of liver diseases. Ghana is highly endemic for HBV. There is also a high
prevalence of the condition among blood donors and pregnant women. HBV is the most
common cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer among children
and adults in Ghana.
Humans are the only source of infection of the HBV. The hepatitis B virus infection is caused
by a 42-nm DNA virus in the family Hepadnaviridae. There are two main modes of
transmission of HBV, vertical transmission (mother to child, MTCT) and horizontal
transmission. Infected individuals may be asymptomatic or symptomatic and may present as
an acute or chronic infection.
The strategies for the national control of HBV are limited to surveillance of acute viral
hepatitis, education and three completed HBV vaccine doses in the infant. Little is done to
reduce MTCT of HBV. There is therefore the need to assess the current practices of PMTCT
of HBV to identify the gaps in current practices and propose recommendations that may help
improve the current situation.
METHODS: A cross sectional design was be used for this study. Data on the practices of
HBV was collected with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire among mothers and their
newborns at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. One hundred and ninety-one (191)
mothers and their newborns were assessed.
RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV among mothers was 4.52%. There was no coinfection of
HIV amongst mothers. Mothers had average knowledge of HBV. PMTCT of HBV was
limited to screening of mothers for HBsAg at ANC. No exposed newborn received the
monovalent vaccine or the HBIG. Maternal factors associated with uptake of PMTCT of HBV
included age, religion, level of ANC facility, number of contacts with care providers,
screening for HIV and Syphilis and previous vaccination practices.
CONCLUSION: Increase education of mothers on HBV. The prevalence of HBV among
mothers is at the intermediate level, need to study the barriers and facilitators of PMTCT of
HBV and adopt a strong national policy and implementation program that will make
accessible diagnostic tests, antiviral therapy and universal birth dose in addition to current
strategies to curb the vertical transmission of HBV, its chronic squeal and the maintenance of
HBV in the population.|
|Description: ||A thesis submitted to the Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Public Health in Population, Family and Reproductive Health,2019|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Health Sciences|
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