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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/13347

Title: Risk factors for stroke occurrence in a low HIV endemic West African country: A case-control study
Authors: Sarfo, Fred Stephen
Opare-Sem, Ohene
Agyei, Martin
Akassi, John
Owusu, Dorcas
Owolabi, Mayowa
Ovbiagele, Bruce
Keywords: HIV
Risk Factors
Low HIV prevalence
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Citation: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 395 (2018) 8–16
Abstract: Background: HIV infection is an emerging vascular risk factor associated with stroke occurrence. The weight of evidence from sub-Saharan Africa in support of this has accrued from countries with high HIV prevalence. Our objective was to assess the contribution of HIV sero-positivity to the occurrence and outcomes of stroke in a West African country with low HIV prevalence. Methods: A case-control study design conducted at a tertiary medical center in Ghana involved in the Stroke Investigative Research & Educational Networks (SIREN) epidemiological study. Stroke cases were adults (aged ≥18 years) with CT or MRI confirmed stroke and stroke-free controls were age-matched and recruited from communities in the catchment areas of cases. Standard instruments were used to assess vascular and lifestyle factors and serological screening for HIV antibodies was conducted for all study participants. Stroke patients were followed for in-patient mortality outcomes. Associations between HIV, demographic and vascular risk factors and stroke occurrence and outcomes were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: We enrolled 540 stroke cases and 540 control subjects with a mean (±SD) age of 60.8 ± 15.5 years (cases) and 60.0 ± 15.5 (controls). Among stroke cases, the frequency of HIV was 12/540 (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.3% - 3.6%) versus 15/540 (2.8%, 95% CI: 1.7% - 4.6%) among stroke-free controls, p=.70. However, the median (IQR) age of Persons Living with HIV (PLWH) with stroke was significantly lower at 46.5 (40–65.3) years versus 61.0 (50–74) years, p=.03 among HIV- stroke patients. Stroke among PLWHA was predominantly hemorrhagic in 7 out of 12 cases and ischemic in 5 of 12 with notable clustering of established factors such as hypertension, (100%), dyslipidemia, 83.3%, central obesity, 50.0%, diabetes mellitus, 33.3%, cardiac diseases, 8.3% in this group. None of the PLWH with stroke were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: We found no associations between HIV infection and stroke occurrence among Ghanaians. However a clustering of cardio-metabolic factors in the context of HIV may promote stroke occurrence in younger individuals.
Description: An article published in Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 395 (2018) 8–16
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/13347
Appears in Collections:College of Health Sciences

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