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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12951

Title: Relationship between breakfast consumption, BMI status and physical fitness of Ghanaian school-aged children
Authors: Annan, Reginald A.
Sowah, Solomon Adjetey
Apprey, Charles
Agyapong, Nana Ama Frimpomaa
Okonogi, Satoru
Yamauchi, Taro
Sakurai, Takeshi
Keywords: Anthropometry
Breakfast consumption
Physical fitness
Physical activity
School-aged children
Ghana
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: BMC Nutrition
Citation: BMC Nutrition (2020) 6:19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00344-9
Abstract: Background: Good nutrition and physical activity of school-aged children are important for ensuring optimum growth and reducing obesity. This present study assessed associations between breakfast consumption, BMI-for-Age (BMI) and physical fitness in a cross-section of school-aged children attending government-owned primary schools in Kumasi, Ghana. Method: The sample consisted of 438 pupils (boys = 213; girls = 225; mean age 11.1 ± 1.1), attending 10 randomly selected schools. Weight (kg), height (cm) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) were measured for each participant, and BMI-for-age z-scores determined using the World Health Organisation (WHO) anthroplus software. Participants were stratified into thinness, normal weight, overweight/obese using WHO cut offs. Physical fitness was assessed using forward jump, left and right handgrips, flexibility, sit-ups and 50 metre run following standard procedures and converted to scores of 1 to 10 following Japanese standards, based on which percentiles were derived. Total fitness score for each pupil was computed by adding all scores. A questionnaire was used to assess meal intake patterns. Results: The mean BMI-for-age z-score for participants was − 0.24 ± 0.99. Thinness, normal weight and overweight/ obesity were 2.7, 86.5, and 10.5% respectively among the pupils. Overweight was higher in girls (14.2%) compared to boys (4.2%), p = 0.003. Similarly, mean MUAC was significantly (p = 0.021) higher in the girls (22.0 ± 3.2 cm) than the boys (20.7 ± 7.3 cm). For physical fitness, the girls scored higher in forward jump (p < 0.0001), 50-m run (p = 0.002) and overall fitness score than the boys (21.0 ± 6.2 versus 19.2 ± 8.3, p = 0.012). However, a larger proportion of boys performed excellently and poorly than girls (p = 0.019). A positive correlation was observed between BMI zscore and hand grip (r = 0.21, p < 0.001), while sit up (r = − 0.11, p = 0.018) showed a negative correlation with BMI z-score. No other fitness test varied by BMI. Overweight children performed best in handgrip. Majority of children said they engaged in exercise (89.9%) and consumed breakfast (78.9%). Breakfast consumption was not associated with BMI z-score (x2 0.0359, p = 0.549) but non-breakfast consumers performed better in 50m run compared to consumers (7.0 seconds ± 2.3 vrs 6.3 seconds ± 2.5, p = 0.022). Children who reported to exercise were physically fitter than those who did not.Conclusion: Underweight levels were low while overweight was over 10% in these children. Girls were more than 3 times affected by overweight than boys, and were also physically fitter than boys. Breakfast consumption was not related to weight or fitness.
Description: An article published by BMC Nutrition (2020) 6:19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00344-9
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12951
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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