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|Title: ||Environmental health risks and benefits of the use of mosquito coils as malaria prevention and control strategy|
|Authors: ||Hogarh, Jonathan N.|
Agyekum, Thomas P.
Bempah, Crentsil Kofi
Owusu‑Ansah, Emmanuel D. J.
Avicor, Silas W.
Indoor air pollution
|Issue Date: ||2018|
|Publisher: ||Malaria Journal|
|Abstract: ||Background: Malaria is an infectious disease that causes many deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. In resource-poor
malaria endemic communities, mosquito coils are commonly applied in households to repel the vector mosquito that
transmits malaria parasites. In applying these coils, users have mainly been interested in the environmental health
benefits potentially derived from repelling the mosquito, while oblivious of the environmental health risks that may
be associated with exposure to emissions from the use of mosquito coil. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the
mosquito coil, ascertained and/or estimated the toxic emissions that may emanate from the coil, and determined
its overall appropriateness by conducting a risk–benefit analysis of the use of this strategy in malaria prevention at
Methods: The repellent ability of mosquito coils was tested by conducting a mosquito knockdown/mortality test
in experimental chambers synonymous of local room spaces and conditions. The gaseous and particulate emissions
from the mosquito coil were also analysed. Additional scenarios were generated with the Monte Carlo technique and
a risk–benefit analysis was conducted applying @Risk software.
Results: Mosquito mortality arising from the application of various mosquito coils averagely ranged between 24 and
64%, which might not provide adequate repellency effect. Emissions from the mosquito coil were also found to contain
CO, VOCs, SO2,
The Hazard Index of the respective pollutants characterized over a lifetime
exposure scenario was low (< 1 for each pollutant), which suggests that the concentrations of the specific chemicals
and particulate matter emitted from the mosquito coil may not constitute adverse environmental health risk.
Conclusion: Although the risk of morbidity from the use of the mosquito coil was low, the coil yielded limited protection
as a mosquito avoidance method. It may, therefore, have a reduced benefit in controlling malaria and should
be applied sparingly in a highly regulated manner only when traditionally proven effective vector control strategies
are not available or too expensive for resource-poor malaria endemic regions.|
|Description: ||An article published by Malaria Journal and also available at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2412-4|
|Appears in Collections:||College of Science|
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