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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12817

Title: Exposure and risk assessment of selected chemical hazards in cabbage and lettuce
Authors: Ofosu, Isaac W
Akomea-Frempong, Samuel
Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel De-Graft J
Darko, Godfred
Keywords: Heavy metals
PAH
Hazard quotient
Incremental litime cancer risk
Vegetables
Issue Date: 26-Nov-2018
Publisher: Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment
Citation: Ofosu IW, Akomea-Frempong S, De-Graft E, Owusu-Ansah J, Darko G (2018) Exposure and Risk Assessment of Selected Chemical Hazards in Cabbage and Lettuce. J Toxicol Risk Assess 4:014. doi. org/10.23937/2572-4061.1510014
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine health risks associated with consumption of cabbage and lettuce sampled in an urban industrialized study area. Samples were initially digested in Teflon vessels using HNO3 and H2O2, homogenized in Na2SO4, agitated in a mixture of hexane/acetone, cleaned-up and analyzed in ICP - MS in order to quantify toxic heavy metals. The PAH content was also quantified in GC-MS against reference PAH congeners. Food frequency questionnaire designed based on the US EPA format, was used to collect elements of chronic daily intake and information on consumption characteristics of the selected samples. The data was processed in Palisade@Risk-based Microsoft Excel, where distributions were fitted for the elements of chronic daily intake. Exposure quantifications of hazards based on the US EPA guidelines, presented hazard quotients and risks, relative to the respective reference doses and cancer slopes factors (CSF). Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILTCR) were determined as the product of the CSF of the carcinogens and their chronic exposures. The modal and median mercury exposures were low but the exposures of total PAHs (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene -BaP) were extremely high. The hazard quotients revealed that cadmium and mercury had negligible risks (HQ ≤ 1). Though the median and modal ILTCR showed lead to have low health risk concerns (≤ 10-6), the uncertainty ranging from 0 to 3 out-10-thousand consumers revealed insidous risk unacceptability. Similarly, even though the modal and median values of ILTCR of arsenic appeared acceptable (≤ 10-6), the risk uncertainty ranging from 0 to 6 out-1-thousand consumers, still raise health concerns. The median and modal ILTCR values of BaP suggested both a cautiously acceptable risk (≥ 10-6 ≤ 10-4) and a barely negligible risk (≤ 10-6) levels respectively. Thus, every effort must be made to mitigate the seriously high risks lurking in the study area.
Description: An article published by Journal of Toxicology and Risk Assessment and also available at DOI: 10.23937/2572-4061.1510014
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/12817
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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