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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/11417

Title: Levels of Phthalates in Selected Ghanaian Alcoholic Beverages
Authors: Asigri, Salifu
Issue Date: 15-Oct-2018
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the presence and levels of three regulated phthalates; benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), Di-(2-ethylhexyle) phthalate (DEHP) and Di-butyl phthalate (DBP) in locally manufactured alcoholic beverages popularly called “bitters” and packaged with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The analysis looked at 36 samples consisting of 33 different brands of which twenty one (21) were packaged in PET bottles and fifteen (15) packaged in PET pouches/bags. Target analyte was extracted from samples into n-hexane following an optimized protocol and analyzed using gas chromatography Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). The method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 1 μg/mL to 32 μg/mL with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9919, 1.00 and 0.9996 for BBP, DEHP and DBP respectively. LOD and LOQ for the method detection and quantification ranged from 0.4 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL and 3 μg/mL to 4 μg/mL respectively. Recoveries for method validation purposes yielded a range of 72.24 % to 105.97% of DBP spiked at concentration of 0.1 μg/mL and 0.2 μg/mL. At least two out of the three phthalates were detected in all samples. DPB was not detected in 5 of the samples representing 13.89 % of the samples tested. The overall mean concentration of DEHP exceeded the regulatory level by 212.67 % whilst that of DBP was as high as 1770 % above the legal limit. The highest leachable samples recorded values of 5.81 μg/mL and 6.02 μg/mL which are 287.3 % and 1906.67 % above the EU Commission regulation 10/2011 for DEHP (i.e. SML = 1.5 μg/mL) and DBP (i.e. SML = 0.3 μg/mL) respectively. The overall mean levels of BBP however complied with the regulation. Consequently, these findings indicate that the level of leaching of phthalates especially DEHP and DBP into some Ghanaian alcoholic beverages popularly called “bitters” can be quite high.
Description: A thesis submitted to the Department of Food Science and Technology in Partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Science in Food Quality Management, 2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/11417
Appears in Collections:College of Science

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